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Lecture Chapter 8: Evaluating alternatives for, requirements, environment and implementation

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Lecture Chapter 8: Evaluating alternatives for, requirements, environment and implementation

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Lecture "Chapter 8: Evaluating alternatives for, requirements, environment and implementation" provides students with the knowledge: Project management perspective, deciding on scope and level of automation, determining the level of automation, selecting alternatives, defining the application deployment environment,... Invite you to consult.

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Nội dung Text: Lecture Chapter 8: Evaluating alternatives for, requirements, environment and implementation

  1. 8 8 Learning Objectives Chapter 8: Evaluating Alternatives for  Prioritize the system requirements based on the Requirements, Environment, desired scope and level of automation for the new system and Implementation  Describe the strategic decisions that integrate the Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing application deployment environment and the World, 3rd Edition design approach for the new system  Determine alternative approaches for system development Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 2 8 8 Learning Objectives (continued) Overview  Evaluate and select a development approach  Chapter explains last three activities of analysis based on the needs and resources of the  Prioritize systems requirements organization  Generate and evaluate alternatives  Review recommendation with management  Describe key elements of a request for proposal and evaluate vendors’ proposals for outsourced  Refocus project direction alternatives  Transition from discovery and analysis to solutions and design  Develop a professional presentation of findings to  Set direction for design and implementation of management solution system Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 4 8 8 Project Management Perspective Deciding on Scope and Level of Automation  Project manager and senior technical members  Scope determines which business functions will of project team work together be included in system  Level of automation is how much computer  Eight areas of project management support exists for functions included in level  Scope  Human resources  Scope creep  Time  Procurement  Requests for addition of system functions after requirements defined and decision has been made  Cost  Communications  Users typically request more business functions  Quality  Risk than budget allows Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 5 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 6
  2. 8 8 Determining the Level of Automation Selecting Alternatives  Low level  Entire group of alternatives is evaluated together to provide “big picture” view of proposed system  Simple computer records keeping  Key criteria that are used:  Medium level  Strategic plan  Midrange point which combines features from low  Economic feasibility and high alternatives  Schedule and resource feasibility  High level  Technological feasibility  System takes over processing of business function  Operational, organizational, and cultural feasibility Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 7 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 8 8 8 Defining the Application Hardware, System Software, and Networks Deployment Environment  Older batch-mode applications on centralized  Configuration of: mainframe  Computer hardware  Stand-alone applications on mini- and personal  System software computers  Networks  On-line interactive applications  Development Tools  Distributed applications  Existing environment generally considered and compared with proposed environment  Web-based applications Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 9 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 10 8 8 Deployment Environment Characteristics Development Tools  Compatibility with system requirements  Programming languages, CASE tools, software used to develop application software  Compatibility among hardware and system  Java and Visual Studio.NET are examples software  Application deployment environment decisions  Required interfaces to external systems limit development tool choices  Conformity with IT strategic plan and architecture  Operating system environment plans  Database management system (DBMS)  Cost and schedule  Distributed software standard Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 11 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 12
  3. 8 8 Existing Processing Environment at RMO Processing Environment Alternatives Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 13 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 14 8 8 Strategic Directions for RMO Choosing Implementation Alternatives  Variations on obtaining system  Facilities management outsource all IS support  Packaged software, Turnkey system, ERP system  Custom-built software systems  In-house development  Selection dimensions  Buy vs. build  In-house vs. outsource Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 15 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 16 8 8 Implementation Alternatives Selecting an Implementation Alternative  Identifying Criteria for Selection  Comparisons can be difficult  Different proposed systems have strengths in different areas  Three major areas to consider  General requirements  Technical requirements  Functional requirements Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 17 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 18
  4. 8 8 Partial Matrix of General Requirements Partial Matrix of Functional Requirements Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 19 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 20 8 8 Partial Matrix of Technical Requirements Making the Selection  First, rate each alternative with raw score  Weighted scores are then tabulated and compared to make a choice  RMO decided on in-house development for most CSS development to keep expertise within RMO  RMO wants to hire some new technical specialists  RMO feasibility review showed no serious problems – once specialists are added Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 21 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 22 8 8 Contracting with Vendors Sample RFP Table of Contents  Generating Request for Proposal (RFP) I. Introduction and Background  Formal document sent to vendors if in-house development not selected II. Overview of Need  States requirements and solicits proposed III. Description of Technical Requirements solutions IV. Description of Functional Requirements  Considered a competitive contract offer  Bid on supplying hardware, software, and/or support services Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 23 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 24
  5. 8 8 Sample RFP Table of Contents (continued) Sample RFP Table of Contents (continued) V. Description of General Requirements VI. Requested Provider and Project Information VII. Details for Submitting Proposal IV. Evaluation Criteria and Process Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 25 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 26 8 8 Benchmarking and Choosing a Vendor Presenting Results and Making Decisions  Observe in use or install trial version  Compile and organize documentation  Benchmark – evaluate the system against a standard  Present alternatives and critical issues in easy-to- understand but complete manner  Visit another company using particular system  Developing a contract  Final choice generally made by executive  Fixed-dollar contracts: Risk is on vendor steering committee  Cost-plus-percentage: Risk is on purchaser  Format of documentation and presentation style  Cost-plus-fixed-fee: Risk shared by both varies with organization Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 27 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 28 8 8 Summary Summary (continued)  These activities are primarily project manager  Application deployment environment responsibilities with support from project team  Computer hardware, systems software, and  Focus of project changes from discovering networks in which new system will operate requirements to developing solution system  Determines constraints imposed on system  Prioritize requirements based on scope and level development alternatives of automation  Analyst must define environment to match:  Scope of new system determines functions it will  Application requirements support  Organization’s strategic application plans  Level of automation is measure of how automated selected functions will be  Organization’s technology architecture plans Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 29 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 30
  6. 8 Summary (continued)  Determine what alternatives are possible for developing solution  Implementation alternatives include:  Building system in-house  Buying packaged or turnkey solution  Contracting with developer to build it (outsource)  Develop recommendations and present to management to make funding decisions Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 31
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