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Mù chữ và vấn đề nguồn nhân lực dân tộc thiểu số: kết quả khảo sát ở tỉnh Điện Biên

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Bài viết tìm hiểu và phân tích chất lượng nguồn nhân lực ở tình Điện Biên - một tỉnh dân tộc chậm phát triển, nhằm góp phần vào việc phát triển kinh tế địa phương. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo nội dung chi tiết của tài liệu.

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Nội dung Text: Mù chữ và vấn đề nguồn nhân lực dân tộc thiểu số: kết quả khảo sát ở tỉnh Điện Biên

O.A*<br /> <br /> S6 4 (246)-2016<br /> <br /> NGON N G C & DOI S 6 N G<br /> <br /> UWrm i dvea<br /> <br /> INGON NGty HQC VA VIgT NGO* H Q C ]<br /> <br /> MU C H f VA VAN DE NGUON NHAN LV*C DAN TQC<br /> THIEU SO: K £ T QUA KHAO SAT 6 TINH DIfN BIEN<br /> ILLITERACY AND PROBLEMS IN HUMAN RESOURCES CONCERNING ETHNIC<br /> MINORITIES: RESULTS OF THE SURVEYS IN DIEN BIEN PROVINCE<br /> TRANTRI DOI<br /> (GS.TS; DH KHXH & NV, DHQG H i N^i)<br /> Abstract: The province of Dien Bien in Vietnam is the residential area of different ethnic<br /> groups, with the Thai being the largest. Based on criteria for defining 'illiteracy' and<br /> standards for 'elimination of illiteracy' stipulated in various decisions and circulars of<br /> Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training enacted between 1956 and 2008, and results of<br /> several surveys in 2013 and 2014 among 3497 ethnic minority informants in 7 out of the 10<br /> districts in the province, the p^jer paints a true picture of illiteracy among the ethnic<br /> minorities herein.- Through an analysis of illiteracy data disaggregated by age group and sex<br /> in comparison with the total population of the surveyed area, the paper concludes with<br /> assessment of the quality of human resources of Dien Bien province amidst demands of the<br /> country's integration and globalization<br /> K ^ words: illiteracy; human resources; ethnic minority; Dien Bien province; elimination<br /> of illiteracy.<br /> 1. Doi net ve tinh dan t$c mien<br /> niii Di^n BiSn<br /> 1.1. Bi^n Biin la m^t tinh dan tgc thieu<br /> s6 mien nM cktea phdt trien<br /> Di$n BiSn Ik mpt tinh thu$c dja b ^ dtn<br /> t0c thi^u s6 viing mien nui TSy BSc Vi$t<br /> Nam, vfjra c6 du6ng biSn gidi vdi L^o 6 phia<br /> Tfiy, \im c6 du6ng bien gidi v6i Trung Qu6c<br /> d phia BSc. Dia hinh trong tinh tuy c6 dong<br /> btog thung liing t h ^ Mu6ng Thanh, nhung<br /> chu yeu 1^ yuag ntii cao, trong do dinh Pu<br /> Den Dinh 6 hi^?n Mudng Nh6 cao 1.886 m.<br /> Cho den hien nay, to^n tinh c6 tdi 55,3%<br /> t6ng di$n tich dat tu nhiSn, trong d6 96,9%<br /> Ik ikt d6i niH, cbn chua 6agc khai thdc. Qua<br /> d6 c6 till n6i, ve dia hinh t\r nhien, Dien<br /> Bi€n th\rc s\r 14 m$t trong nhOng ^ a b ^ dan<br /> tgc thieu s6 mien ndi diln hinh cua viing<br /> Tay BSc.<br /> Tr€n dja b ^ cua tinh, hlfn c6 Idi 21 dan<br /> t0c vdi s6 dan 14 491.046 ngu6i [Tong dieu<br /> tra dan s6 nSm 2009, (2010)] cung sinh<br /> <br /> song. Trong so do, nguoi Thai chilm 38% la<br /> dan t$c c6 so dan ddng ddng nhSt, tfau: hai la<br /> dan tOc M6ng chilm 30%, 6 vi tri thu ba la<br /> nguoi Kinh (20%), tiep theo la nguoi Kho<br /> Mu (3,9%); nhDng dSn tpc khdc c6n lai nhu<br /> Ha Nhl, Khdng, Dao, Xinh Mun, Hoa, L4o,<br /> Tay \h nhiing c0ng d6ng chi c6 tir 5.200 din<br /> tren mpt nghin ngudi; nhOng dan tpc nhu<br /> Cong, Si La v.v. chi c6 duoi m0t nghin<br /> nguM. Ve m^t ngon ngil, cic dan tgc thieu<br /> so sinh song d Di$n Bien thupc vko nhiing<br /> ngft h$ rat khic nhau nhu Thii - Kadai,<br /> M6ng - Dao, Han - Tang va Nam A [Tran<br /> Tri D5i, 2015].<br /> S\r da dgng vS nguon goc ngon ngii khien<br /> cho cdc d§n t0c thieu so 6 day vira c6 nhitag<br /> n6t v9n hoi d$c trung c$i nguon cua minh,<br /> vira c6 n6t v3n h6a chung do tilp xuc iSn<br /> nhau trong ck khu v\ic Tky BSc. Day la m$t<br /> d§c (Kem mang Igi nhieu Igi th^ trong hoat<br /> d$ng vSn h6a phyc vy phat trien ben vthig xS<br /> h$i; song n6 cung d^t ra nhfing thich t h ^<br /> <br /> N G 6 N N G C & Bin<br /> <br /> khong nhd trong vka Sk giO gin kh6i d?i<br /> doan ket cac dan toe vh &n dinh chfnh tri xS<br /> hpi. V6i m|it dp dan s6 trong tinh Ih 49<br /> ngu6i/km^ Di$n Bien hi$n 14 m§t trong<br /> nhiing tinh c6 ni$t do dan s6 th^p nli4t cAa<br /> c&nu6c.<br /> Hi?n tai, do di^u kipn tM nguySn, co cdu<br /> Icinh tl chu ylu cija tinh Dien BiSn id idnh te<br /> nong - Itoi nghi$p, sau d6 la hofit dpng khai<br /> thdc kho^g san vd du iieh. Trong ho^t d$ng<br /> kinh tl, ehat lupng ngu6n nhSn l\Tc la van de<br /> n6i c$m etja tinh D i ^ Bi6n. Ti If lao dpng<br /> qua d ^ t^o ci^ tinh theo s6 li$u cong bo<br /> nam 2007 chi li 21,4%; va hka het nhiing<br /> lao d§ng nay deu la nhiing can b$, cong vi€n<br /> chiic l&m vifc trong Idiu v^rc nlid nu6c hay<br /> edc to chiic d o ^ thI xS h0i; d^ng thM hp<br /> sSng t$p trung d thanh pho Di$n Bien Phl^,<br /> thi xS Mu6ng Lay vji cdc tli; trin-trung tSm<br /> cioa huy?n. Trong khi d6, Ik tinh dSn tpe<br /> thi^u so mien niii nhimg t^ khu v\rc ndng<br /> thon, ngu6n nhSn l\rc khdng nhiing cdn bat<br /> clip v^ s6 lupng, ma c6n bat c^p ea vh chdt<br /> lupng Cling nhu cor cau. Nhu s6 li$u cong b6<br /> nam 2007, to4n tinh c6 89.500 hO, nhimg c6<br /> tdi 29.368 hp d6i nghdo theo tieu chi lllc biy<br /> gid, ehiem ti 1$ t6i 32,81%.<br /> R3 r^g, vdi diSu kipn t\r nhi@n vk tinh<br /> trang kuih ta -x§ h6i nhu the, Di$n Bita li<br /> mot tinh dSn tOc mien ntii ch$m plidt tri^n.<br /> Chinh vi thI, vi$c Um hiiu \h phSn tich ch4t<br /> lupng nguon nhSn lire lao dOng 6 day Id m$t<br /> vice Itai cin thiet va rdt c4p b4ch eho ph4t<br /> trien kinh te dia phuong.<br /> 1.2. vi tieu chi xdc tfnh "mi ch/f"<br /> trong nghiin cAu ngudn nhan lytc lao dpng<br /> Trong nghiSn cihi chit lupng nguSn lihSn<br /> l\rc lao dpng, m0t dieu duong nliign \k chijng<br /> ta phdi tim hieu ve "trinh dp hpc van" hay<br /> "trinh dO van h6a" cila hp. Doi vdi mOt dia<br /> ban dan tOc thieu so mien nijd nhu tinh Bi$n<br /> Bifin, vi$c nghidn ciiu "tinh trang mil chft"<br /> ciia nguiii dSn b day 14 mpt trong nhOng<br /> cich \iia phii hpp. Vi. chinh chi so n4y nd<br /> cho chijng ta biet chit lupng thvrc t^ c ^<br /> <br /> S6NG<br /> <br /> S 6 4 (246)-2016<br /> <br /> ngitdi lao dOng 6 d)a \xca dSn tpc thi^u s6 li<br /> nhu thI ndo.<br /> Tieu chl xac djah tinh tr?ng "mii chiT<br /> dupe sil dvmg trong nhiing nghien cftu cila<br /> chiing tdi v4 it bdi vlet ndy 14 d\ra v4o c4c<br /> Quyfe dinh va Th6ng ciia Bp GD v4 DT Vift<br /> Nam c6ng bS tiJr nam 1956 din nam 2008.<br /> Trong m0t b4i vi& da c6ng b6 [Trin Tri D6i<br /> (2013)], chibg tdi da giai thich 11 do vi sao<br /> chtlng ta l^i ph4i dp dyng nhiing tiSu chi<br /> n h ^ difn v ^ d^ "mil chii", v4 ci!ing vdi nd<br /> Id vin il "xda m i chiT v4 eh6ng "tdi md<br /> chii" d nude ta theo tiSu chuin Vi$t Nam<br /> chii khdng thI Id tiSu chuan quoe te<br /> [UNESCO (2006)]. Vd theo tiSu chuin Vift<br /> Nam, mdt ngudi dupe xem Id bi& chii (tic<br /> Id da "xda mil ehiF'/"thodt n?n mii ehtt") khi<br /> ngudi dd cd tilnh dp tuong duong vdi trinh<br /> d0 di hpe Idp 1 din 16p 3 Ijjc tieu hpc; cdn<br /> sau khi bilt chii, nlu khdng cdn giii dupe<br /> nhiing kien thiic dd hpc d thdi ki trade thi<br /> hp Id ngudi "mil chO trd l?i" hay "tdi mii<br /> chti" va nhu v$y, hp l?i id nhiing ngudi "md<br /> chii".<br /> Trong bdi vi& dd cdng b6, chiSng tdi tvmg<br /> phSn tich 11 do vi sao vdi dieu kipn ciia Vift<br /> Nam, cd 16, khdng nSn ik ngh) d^t van dl<br /> xdc dinh tinh trang *'mii chii" vd "xda md<br /> chO" theo tiSu chl do UNESCO n6u ra. Vi<br /> ddy la vin &k nhan hpc ngon ngU hay ngdn<br /> ng& hqc x3 hpi ciia tung qii6c gia nen n6<br /> phdi phy thu$c vdo tiSu chi cia mdt quoo gia<br /> cy thI do m6i tuong quan giiia kinh ti - x3<br /> hdi - vdn hda - gido dye ciia qu^c gia dd quy<br /> djnh. d ddy cung xin ndi rd Id ket qud phSn<br /> tich md chiing idi trinh l)ay trong bdi viSt 14<br /> ndi v^ hipn tupng "mii chii" tieng Vipt (ngon^<br /> ngO qu6c gia ciia Vift Nam); chiing tdi cda:<br /> ehua ed dieu kifn thao ludn vh tinh trang<br /> "mil chii" tilng mp de eda ngudi ddn t?c<br /> thilu sd sinh sdng trfti dia bdn.<br /> J.3. Cdch thiic thu thfp tir li$u Mphin<br /> tich Anh trgng "mil chO"<br /> <br /> S64(246)-2016<br /> <br /> NG6N NGC & oia S6NG<br /> <br /> Tr&i co.sd tidu chl nh|n difn tinh tiang<br /> "mu chii" nhu trSn, vdo thdng 1 n3m 2013<br /> vd thdng 2 ndm 2014, trong khudn kh6 thvrc<br /> hifn de tdi ciia D ^ hpc Qu6c gia Hd Ndi,<br /> chiing tdi da c6 cudc &ka ra dien dd d 12 xa<br /> phudng thudc 5/8 don vi hdnh chinh cip<br /> huypn. Trong sd 12 xa phudng dd chl ed<br /> phudng Nam Thanh (Tp Difn BiSn Phu), thj<br /> trin Di$n Bito Ddng (huyfn Difn Bi6n<br /> Ddng) vd xd Ang Nua (huyfn Mudng Ang)<br /> khdng thudc dipn "xa ddc bift khd khdn"<br /> theo Quyk dinh s6 2405/QD-TTg ngdy 10<br /> thing 12 ndm 2013 ciia Thii tudng Chlnh<br /> phii.<br /> Sau khi Idp phieu phong vdn, chiing tdi<br /> thu th|ip tu lidu theo each mSi m$t phieu<br /> phdng vin phdi do mpt phdng van vien (14<br /> smh viSn, HVCH v4 NCS ng4nh ngdn ngiJ<br /> hpc) tryc txip thyc liifn. Nhiing ngudi thyc<br /> hifn phdng vin trudc khi di khdo sdt diu<br /> dupe r^P hudn tren b4ng hdi v4 trdn phidu<br /> phdng vin v^ n0i dung vd cdch thdrc 1dm<br /> vifc. Nhu v$y, mSi phieu phdng vin Id kit<br /> qud 1dm vifc true tilp ciia ngucri nghien cuu<br /> dd dupe chuin b} vh ndi dung vd cdch thirc<br /> phdng van.<br /> Vipc lya chpn dja diem khdo sdt t^ thyc<br /> dia cCne diipe chiing tdi lya chpn theo<br /> nguyen tdc sau day. Do ddc diem dan t$c ciia<br /> tinh Dipn Bien, nhiing dja jjdn cd cdc ddn tdc<br /> DSnt^c<br /> Khing<br /> KhcrMd<br /> M6ng<br /> HdNM<br /> Thdi<br /> T4y<br /> Mudng<br /> Niing<br /> Dao<br /> <br /> T6nEsi<br /> SL<br /> 0177<br /> 067!<br /> 0424<br /> 0206<br /> 2010<br /> 0003<br /> 0003<br /> 0001<br /> 0002<br /> 3497<br /> <br /> %<br /> 04.69%<br /> 17.79%<br /> 11.24%<br /> 05.46%<br /> 53.30%<br /> 00.07%<br /> 00.07%<br /> 00.02%<br /> 00.04%<br /> 100%<br /> <br /> Thai, Mdng, Kho Mii la noi dupe uu tien<br /> phdng vSn. D6ng thdi, ca quan gido dye ^ a<br /> phucmg Id chd thi chii dOng lya chpn dja bdn<br /> de ehdng tdi khdo sat de thu thdp s6 lipu.<br /> E)6i tupng dupe phdng vin Id tat cd nhiing<br /> cu ddn tir 6 tu6i (tdic Id dd din tu6i di hpc<br /> b$c Tiiu hpc) trd ISn liifn dang cd mdt t^i<br /> noi cu trd vdo thdi diim dupe khdo sdt.<br /> Nhiing nguydn tdc vi cdch thiie thu th^p tu<br /> lifu nhu viia md td da dupe chiing tdi trinh<br /> hky chi tiit trong trong mpt nghien ciru trudc<br /> ddy cua mtoh [Trin Tri Ddi, 2014].<br /> Cdch 1dm ind chiing tdi md td d trSn Id di<br /> ddm bdo tinh khdch quan cua ngu6n tu lifu<br /> dupe thu thap dupe. Cd nhu vdy, nhOng<br /> phdn tich dya vdo tu lipu diin dd mdi phdn<br /> dnh bdn chit ciia vin di.<br /> 2. Tinh tr^ng '^mii chii' thvc te** cua<br /> ngiToi dan tpc thiiu s6 & dja ban tinh Di^n<br /> Bien hif n nay<br /> 2.2. SS lifu vi "mi chti Ihi/c ti" cua<br /> ngirdi din t$c thiiu so &Bi$n Biin<br /> Vdi cdch thiic thu th$p s6 lifu nhu tren,<br /> chiing tdi dd cd dupe kit qud vi tinh trang<br /> "mil chU thifc ti (MCTT)" (titc gim ed<br /> ngudi dang "mil chii" vd ngudi dd "tdi md<br /> chii) cda ngudi ddn tpc thiiu si d Difn Bien<br /> nhu sau.<br /> <br /> Mil chu'<br /> SL<br /> 089<br /> 50.28%<br /> 294<br /> 43.81%<br /> 147<br /> 34.66%<br /> 072<br /> 34.95%<br /> 458<br /> 22.78%<br /> 0<br /> 0%<br /> 0<br /> 0%<br /> 0<br /> 0%<br /> 002<br /> 100%<br /> 1062<br /> 30.36%<br /> <br /> %<br /> <br /> Tdi md cbii<br /> SL<br /> 049<br /> 27.68%<br /> 159<br /> 23.69%<br /> 072<br /> 16.98%<br /> 019<br /> 09.22%<br /> 280<br /> 13.93%<br /> 0<br /> 0%<br /> 0<br /> 0%<br /> 0<br /> 0%<br /> 0<br /> 0%<br /> 579<br /> 16.55%<br /> <br /> (Nguon: [Trdn Tri Doi ,2014])<br /> <br /> %<br /> <br /> MCTT<br /> 77.96%<br /> 67.50%<br /> 51.64%<br /> 44.17%<br /> 36.71%<br /> 0%<br /> 0%<br /> 0%<br /> 100%<br /> 46.91%<br /> <br /> NG6NNGC&BOIS6NG<br /> Trong si danh sdch 9 ddn tpc cd thu thdp<br /> tu lipu, nhiing ngudi thufc cdc ddn tOc Tay,<br /> Mudng, Niing, Dao cd s6 lupng dupe phdng<br /> van qud it (ting epng cd b6n ddn tpc chi 14 9<br /> ngudi). Do chS tinh Difn Bidn Id dia b4n cu<br /> trd khdng tmyin thing cua nhiing ddn tfc<br /> ndi tren, ding thdi do cdch liy don vi cu tni<br /> Id b4ii/14ng di phdng vin, cho nfn si ngudi<br /> thu thdp tu lifu thudc bin ddn tpc ay Ididng<br /> nliiiu 14 duong nhifn. Vdi l^i trfn thyc ti, cu<br /> ddn nhiing ddn tpc nhu T4y, Mudng, Ndng,<br /> Dao chl 14 ngudi tic noi khdc din cu tni tai<br /> Difn Bifn. Chinh vi the, 9 ngudi dupe<br /> phdng vin thudc bin ddn tfc ndy cd thi coi<br /> Id trudng hpp "d§c biff khdng diin hinh.<br /> Do vdy nhiing ddn tpe dd se khdng dupe<br /> chiing tdi dua ra di ddnh gid trong vif c phdn<br /> tich tinh trgng "md chii thyc ti" d tinh Difn<br /> Bifn. Cho nfn chi cdn lai 5 ddn tpc thiiu si<br /> (Khdng, Kho Mii, Mdng, Hd Nhl vd Thdi)<br /> dupe phdn tich vd so sdnh de nh§n x6t chat<br /> lupng nguin nhan luc lao dpng.<br /> 2.3. Nhfn xit chung<br /> Qua phan tich so lifu tit bdng ting hpp<br /> ndi tren, chiing ta cd thi xdc nhan rdng trong<br /> so nhiing ddn tfc cu tni truyin thing d tinh<br /> Difn Bifn hifn nay, ngudi Khdng 14 eu dan<br /> cd ti If "mil chii thyc ti" d miic cao nhit,<br /> vdi a If Ifn tdi 77.96% si ngudi dupe phdng<br /> van. Trong 7 huyfn thi, ngudi Khang dupe<br /> phdng van d hai huyfn 14 Tuin Gido vd<br /> Mudng Cha; trong dd ngudi Khdng d Tuin<br /> Gido cd U If "md chiifliycte" Ifn din mire<br /> 83.47%, cdn d Mudng Chd ti If ndy fliip<br /> hon nhung cOng d mire cao Id 67.73%. Mdt<br /> diiu ddng chii y nita Id, khi tdch biftrifng rS<br /> hai vin de "mu chii" v4 "tdi mu chii" thi<br /> ngudi Khang d Mudng Chd (53.22%) cd ti<br /> If "mil chii" cao hon ngudi Khdng d Tuin<br /> Gido (48.69%) nhung ngupc lai ngudi<br /> Khdng d Mudng Chd ed ti If "tdi mu chiT' d<br /> miretiiap(14.51%) hon, chi gin mft nila so<br /> vdi cu dan d Tuin Gido (34.78%).<br /> <br /> S64(246)-2016<br /> <br /> Cd ti If "mu ehtt thyc ti" cao d mOc thU<br /> hai trong 5 ddn t$c ndi trfn 14 ngudi Kho Mii<br /> (chiim 67.50% s6 ngudi dupe phdng vin).<br /> Ndi khdc di, vdd fl If "mil chiifliycti" nhu<br /> thi cling cd nghia 14 tinh tr^g "chua biit<br /> chii" ciia ngudi Kho Mii dang d mdc khd<br /> cao, chiim gin 2/3 si ngudi dupe phdng<br /> virL Trong 7 huyfn thi tn4 chiing tdi tfau<br /> th^p tu lifu, ngudi Kho Md dupe phdng v^<br /> d 3 don vi 14 Difn Bifn, Mudng Ch4 vd<br /> Difn Bifn Ddng. Trong si dd, ngudi Kho<br /> Mii d c4 ba huyfn cd ti If *'md chii" deu d<br /> miic tuong duong nhau (Difn Bign Id<br /> 40.00%, Mudng Ch4 14 44.00% v4 Difn<br /> Bien Ddng 14 44.58%). Rifng vi ti If "tJi<br /> md chii", hai huyfn Difn Bifn (27.69%) vS<br /> Difn Bi6n Ddng (32.46%) ed U If d mite<br /> tuong duong nhau; trong khi dd ti If najr d<br /> huyfn Mudng Chd thi thap hon, chi bdng<br /> qud nila ti If d hai huyfn ndi trfn (17.60%).<br /> Hifn tupng ti'di ngugic giiia ti If "md chif<br /> vd "tdi md chii" ciia ngudi Kho Mii trong<br /> nhiing dia bdn khdc nhau nhu thi phin ndo<br /> cflng giing nhu trudng hpp ngudi Khdng dil<br /> ndi d trfn; tuy nhiSn sy chfnh Ifch d ngudi<br /> Kho Mu khdng d mire tiiyc sy Idn nhu<br /> trudng hpp cda ngudi Khdng.<br /> Ngudi Mdng Id cu dan ed tinh Irgng "mil<br /> chii fliyc ti" d vi til fliil ba vdi U If 14<br /> 51.64% si ngudi dupe phdng vin. 6 Di^<br /> Bifn, cfng ding ngudi Mdng dupe phdng<br /> vin d 6/7 dcm vi cap huyfn thj 14 cdc huypi<br /> Tuin Giao, Mudng Ch4, Mudng Nhf, Dijn<br /> Bifn Ddng, Mudng Ang v4 tp Difn Bien<br /> Phu. Do cho, trong 6 don vj cap huyfn thi<br /> nditi-en,ngudi Mdng d Mudng Nhf vd tp<br /> Difn Bifn Phu 14 nhiing eu ddn song "dan<br /> xen" vdi nhOng dan tdc khdc t^ diim cu Irl<br /> dupe phdng van nen si lupng khdng nhiiu;<br /> chi d bin don vj cdn I^i, hp dupe phdng van<br /> nhu Id chii thi eu tiii d bdn/ldng.<br /> Giiia nhiing ngudi Mdng dupe phdng wk<br /> trong don vj cu tru Id bdn/ldng, ti If "mii chU<br /> tiiyc ti" cd flii ndi Id rit khdc nhau. Cy fliJ,<br /> niu nhu ngudi Mflng d Mudng Chd vd DiSn<br /> <br /> s i 4 (246)-2016<br /> <br /> NG6N NGC & B(n S6NG<br /> <br /> Bifn Ddng cd ti If mil chO xip xi mdc 50%<br /> (49.47%/ 50.00%) till ti If ndy d ngudi<br /> Mdng Mudng Ang chi Id 25.12%;tirongkhi<br /> dd d Tuin Gido 14 29.54%, 6 Mudng Nhf<br /> chi 14 13.33%. Ddy Id diim khdc bift nil b ^<br /> nhit khi ndi vi ttnh tr?ng "mu chii fliyc ti"<br /> cua ngirdi Mdng d tinh Difn Bifn. Diim<br /> khdc bift ndy ghi nhdn diiu kifn kinh ti xd<br /> hfi vd vdn hda d m5i huyfn thj ed lifn quan<br /> tryc tiip din mdc d$ "mil chii" cda c$ng<br /> ddng ngudi Mdng sinh song t?ii dja phuong<br /> [Trin Tri Ddi, 2013a]. Ddy Id mOt thyc tk<br /> cin dupe chii y thich dang khi phdn tich bdn<br /> chit cda tinh iiang "mu chG" vd '*tdi md<br /> chii" cia ngudi IJTTS.<br /> Hai ddn tdc Ha Nhi (vdi ti If 44.17%) vd<br /> Thdi (vdi fl If 36.71%) tiiy khdng d miic<br /> nhu ba ddn tdc ndi trSn nhung vin cdn d<br /> mdc cao. Xin chd ^ Id ngudi Hd Niil chi<br /> dupe phdng vin duy nhit d mOt bdn nen si<br /> lifu chua cho ph6p chiing ta nhdn thiy sy<br /> khdc bift giiia cdc vimg. Cdn dii vdi trudng<br /> hpp ngudi Thdi, do chi hp dupe phdng vin<br /> d tit cd 7 huyfn tlii nen miic df "mi chii<br /> thyc ti" cia hp ciing khdc nhau tily theo<br /> timg dia phuong. Cy thi, ngudi Thdi d Difn<br /> Bien Ddng cd ti If "mi chii thyc ti" cao<br /> nhit (59.70%), flip flieo Id ngudi Thdi d<br /> Tuin Gido (55.48%), Mudng Chd (49.99%),<br /> tp Difn Bifn Phi (33.78%), Mudng Nh6<br /> (28.73%), Difn Bifn (28.56%) vd Mudng<br /> Ang (23.60%). Vdi ti If nhu flii, e0ng ding<br /> ngudi Thdi 6 flnh Difn Bifn van thudc difn<br /> Id nhiing cu ddn phdi dupo coi Id c0ng ding<br /> "chua xda ini" niu can eiit theotifu chl quy<br /> dinh cua Nhd nude Vift Nam dd cdng bo<br /> ndm 1997 [B$ Gido dye vd D4o tao, 1997].<br /> Nhu vdy, khi phdn tich flieo th4nh phin<br /> ddn t0c trfn dja bdn flnh Difn Bifn, s6 lifu<br /> thu dupe cho phep chiing ta xdc dinh d tinh<br /> DSn t^c/ngurM<br /> <br /> Tu6i 6-17<br /> MC<br /> 07/50<br /> <br /> TMC<br /> 24/50<br /> <br /> Difn Bien dan t§c thiiu si thuOc difn "mu<br /> chii thyc ti" h i ^ nay Id 46.91%, mpt flnh<br /> tr^g mi chii khd cao. Nhu v§y, nhiing ddn<br /> tOc nhu Khdng, Kho Mi, Mdng, Hd Nhi v4<br /> thdm chi cd ngudi Thdi d day cdn diu chua<br /> d^t d i chuin '^da mi" do Nhd nude Vift<br /> Nam quy dinli. Trfn m$t dia bdn ddn t$c<br /> thiiu so noi ngudi Thdi chiim 38% ddn si<br /> cia tinh, ngudi Mdng chiim 30%) vd ngudi<br /> Kinh chi chiim 20%, flnh trang "mu chii"<br /> nhu tren cia cdng ding cdc ddn tpe chic<br /> chin via cd lien quan m^t thiit, via ed dnh<br /> hudng khdng nhd din tinh trang phdt triin<br /> vd s i dyng nguon nhdn lyc lao dfng trong<br /> vifc ddm bdo sy tdng trudng kinh ti xa hdi<br /> ciia tinh.<br /> 3. Tinh hinh "mu cbi thi^c ti" cia<br /> ngudi dan t$c thiiu si d Difn Bien phdn<br /> tich theo gidi vi d$ tuoi<br /> 3.1. S6 lifu "mi chUrthffc ti" cia ngirdi<br /> din t$c thiiu s6 d Bi$n Biin phan tich theo<br /> t^ tuoi<br /> Dudi ddy Id si lifu "mi chi thyc te' phdn<br /> tichflieodf tiiii cia 5 ddn tfc thiiu si trong<br /> tinh Difn Bifn. Trong bdng, d eft thu nhit,<br /> bfn c ^ tfn ddn tfc Id ting si ngudi ddn<br /> tfc dupe phdng vin, tiip theo sau diu phiy<br /> (,) id so ngudi "mi chii"/"tdi mi chii".<br /> Trong ba eft phan theo baluratuii (6-17,1854 nii/59 nam v4 sau 55 nil/60 nam) thi si<br /> flii nhit 14 si ngudi "mi chO" hay "tdi mi<br /> chii"; con si sau each ch^o (/) Id ting si<br /> ngudi trong df tiiii cda ddn tpc iy. Trong<br /> bdng, mil ddn tfc eing s@ cd hai ti If ve<br /> mie dp "mi chii" vd "tdi mi chft" Id ti If 1<br /> (ti If so vdi ting si ngudi d trong dd tuii<br /> ciia dan tpc) vd ti / | 2 (Id fl If so vdi ting so<br /> ngudi dan tfc dupe phdng van &k khdo sdt).<br /> So lifu 14 nhu sau:<br /> <br /> PhSn theo df tuoi<br /> Tu6i 18-54(n0r)/S9 (nam)<br /> MC<br /> 61/105<br /> <br /> TMC<br /> 24/105<br /> <br /> '<br /> <br /> San 55(nii')/60<br /> (aam)<br /> TMC<br /> 01/22<br /> <br /> MC<br /> 21/22<br /> <br />
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