Cancer pain

Xem 1-20 trên 65 kết quả Cancer pain
  • The neurophysiology of cancer pain is complex: it involves inflammatory, neuropathic, ischaemic and compression mechanisms at multiple sites. A knowledge of these mechanisms and the ability to decide whether a pain is nociceptive, neuropathic, visceral or a combination of all three will lead to best practice in pain management. People with cancer can report the presence of several different anatomical sites of pain, which may be caused by the cancer, by treatment of cancer, by general debility or by concurrent disorders.

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  • Having cancer doesn’t mean that you’ll have pain. But if you do, you can manage most of your pain with medicine and other treatments. This booklet will show you how to work with your doctors, nurses, and others to find the best way to control your pain. It will discuss causes of pain, medicines, how to talk to your doctor, and other topics that may help you. Chapter 1 - People who have cancer don’t always have pain. Everyone is different. But if you do have cancer pain, you should know that you don’t have to accept it. Cancer pain can almost always be relieved....

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Comparison of numerical and verbal rating scales to measure pain exacerbations in patients with chronic cancer pain

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học đề tài : Transdermal opioids for cancer pain

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí hóa học đề tài : Comparison of numerical and verbal rating scales to measure pain exacerbations in patients with chronic cancer pain

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  • It is recognised that the World Health Organisation (WHO) analgesic ladder, whilst providing relief of cancer pain towards the end of life for many sufferers worldwide, may have limitations in the context of long-term survival and increasing disease complexity.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'interagency guideline on opioid dosing for chronic non-cancer pain:  an educational aid to improve   care and safety with opioid therapy', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Neoplasms (See also Chap. 374) Back pain is the most common neurologic symptom in patients with systemic cancer and may be the presenting symptom. The cause is usually vertebral metastases. Metastatic carcinoma (breast, lung, prostate, thyroid, kidney, gastrointestinal tract), multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphomas frequently involve the spine. Cancer-related back pain tends to be constant, dull, unrelieved by rest, and worse at night. By contrast, mechanical low back pain usually improves with rest.

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  • Pain Pain occurs with variable frequency in the cancer patient: 25–50% of patients present with pain at diagnosis, 33% have pain associated with treatment, and 75% have pain with progressive disease. The pain may have several causes. In ~70% of cases, pain is caused by the tumor itself—by invasion of bone, nerves, blood vessels, or mucous membranes or obstruction of a hollow viscus or duct.

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  • Palliation Surgery is employed in a number of ways for supportive care: insertion of central venous catheters, control of pleural and pericardial effusions and ascites, caval interruption for recurrent pulmonary emboli, stabilization of cancerweakened weight-bearing bones, and control of hemorrhage, among others. Surgical bypass of gastrointestinal, urinary tract, or biliary tree obstruction can alleviate symptoms and prolong survival. Surgical procedures may provide relief of otherwise intractable pain or reverse neurologic dysfunction (cord decompression).

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  • Psychological distress increases with the intensity of cancer pain. Cancer pain is often under-reported and under-treated for a variety of complex reasons, partly due to a number of beliefs held by patients, families and healthcare professionals. There is evidence that cognitive behavioural techniques that address catastrophising and promote self-efficacy lead to improved pain management. Group format pain management programmes could contribute to the care of cancer survivors with persistent pain.

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  • There is a weak evidence base for the effectiveness of complementary therapies in terms of pain control, but they may improve wellbeing. Safety issues are also a consideration in this area. Patients with cancer pain spend most of their time in the community until their last month of life. Older patients and those in care homes in particular may have under-treated pain. Primary care teams supported by palliative care teams are best placed to initiate and manage cancer pain therapy, but education of patients, carers and healthcare professionals is essential to improve outcomes.

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  • Previous data has shown the need for better cancer pain management. UK Cancer Deaths numbered 153,397 in 2004 (UK National audit Office reports 2000, 2004). A conservative estimate has suggested that 10% fail to receive effective relief by WHO guidelines; however, this is an underestimation given recent surveys (EPIC 2007, Valeberg, 2008) which show that, in reality, upwards of 30% of patients receive poor pain control, especially in the last year of their lives.. Thirty percent represents 46,020 patients “failing per year”.

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  • The production of melanin (tanning) accounts for part of the protection against UV radiation, but there is mounting scientific evidence that faculta- tive tan is triggered by UV-induced DNA damage in the skin (Pedeux et al., 1998; Gilchrest & Eller 1999 for a review). Facultative tanning is now considered a better indicator of inducible DNA repair capacity than of efficient photoprotective skin reaction. Inducible DNA repair capacity rather than pigmentation itself could result in the lower incidence of skin cancer observed in darker-skinned individuals (Young et al.

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  • A major unmet clinical need exists for long-acting neurotherapeutics to alleviate chronic pain in patients unresponsive to available nonaddictive analgesics. Herein, a new strategy is described for the development of potent and specific inhibitors of the neuronal exocytosis of transmitters and pain mediators that exhibit unique antinociceptive activity.

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  • The ideal mode of palliation (symptom control) is the removal or minimisation of the cause (i.e. disease-directed therapies). For example, in malignant bone pain, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or bisphosphonates may be used. For an infection, antimicrobials or surgical drainage of an abscess may be required. Alongside disease directed therapy, there are a host of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies, which should be used on an individual basis depending on the specific clinical situation.

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  • In the treatment of bone pain, the second step on the WHO analgesic ladder is commonly unhelpful, with inadequate pain relief or the development of undesirable/intolerable side-effects (Eisenberg, 2005). There is currently no place for interventional treatment on the ladder and the earlier recommendations of a fourth step of interventional management are not applied widely enough. The main principles of pain management, including the use of a biopsychosocial approach, should be applied, rather than simply following the WHO ladder.

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  • There is value in minimally invasive investigations for ‘difficult’ pains, such as bone scans, MRI, CT and electrophysiological testing. There is a need for clear information on what pain services can provide and how they may be accessed. Better links between palliative care and specialist pain services are also important. Care of a patient suffering from cancer pain requires a holistic approach combining psychological support, social support, rehabilitation and pain management in order to provide the best possible quality of life or quality of death.

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  • Risk mapping Draw a basic map of the workplace, marking on it the machines, workstations and the substances or processes used. Record on the risk map any health problems reported by workers doing particular jobs. Repeat the exercise periodically and see if any problems become apparent. If cancer causing substances or processes are being used, investigate alternatives and, if this is not possible, safer work methods. Body mapping Draw two body outlines on a large piece of paper, one representing the front of a person, one the back.

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  • Have you ever felt lumps under the skin on the sides of your neck when you were sick? Those might be lymph nodes. They can get swollen and painful but their job is to fight infection. Lymph nodes are part of the body’s defenses known as the lymphatic system.

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