Credit guarantees

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  • Credit Guarantee Corporations (CGCs) are public institutions that support small and medium enterprises (SMEs) by serving as guarantors to make it easier for them to borrow funds, which are necessary for their business operations, from financial institutions. SMEs play an important role in Japan's economy. The credit guarantee system improves the credit worthiness of SMEs, which lack physical collateral and have weak credit standings. It helps direct funds to them from private financial institutions and provides them with smoother access to financing.

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  • One website’s visitor is another website’s customer, and bringing customers and retailers together is now a billion dollar international industry. Whilst Internet traffic crosses international borders with ease, payment for supplying that traffic does not. Members of the online publishing industry have come up with a novel solution – they have set up their own member-only international payments system.

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  • Over the next decade, the two laws also will provide for about $900 billion in new subsidies, including a substantial expansion of Medicaid and new tax credits to offset the cost of health insurance premiums for low- and middle-income families and small businesses. In each state, exchanges will be established to facilitate the purchase of coverage and the delivery of the subsidies. Some companies whose workers receive subsidies for health insurance through the exchanges could be required to pay penalties.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'think before you link shopping auctions business opportunities guaranteed loans or credit investment', kinh doanh - tiếp thị, quản trị kinh doanh phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • This demand feature bridges the gap between borrowers and lenders. It allows governments to issue the long-term bonds they prefer, while making that debt eligible for purchase by money funds that must invest in short-term securities. Sound like the SIVs we discussed earlier? VRDNs are like SIVs in many respects, but with some key differences. First, there is generally less concern about the credit quality of the bonds in a VRDN than the securities held in a SIV—governments are usually pretty good payers.

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  • Credit derivatives fit neatly into this three-dimen sional scheme . Until recently, credit rema ined one of the ma jor components of business risk for wh ich no tailored risk-managemen t products existed. Credit risk managemen t for the loan portfolio manager mean t a strategy of por tfolio diversification backed by line limits, with an occas ional sale of positions in the secondary ma rket . De riva tives users relied on purchasing insurance, let ters of credit, or guarantees, or negotiating colla teralized ma rk- to-ma rket credit enhancemen t provisions in Master...

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  • As regards collateral, the pledging of collateral increases the PD when compared with unsecured lending. Within secured loans, the PD of those that are 100% secured is lower than that of those secured to a value of over 50% but not to a full 100%, although the latter account for only a small percentage of the sample. Finally, loans guaranteed by a credit institution or the public sector have a lower likelihood of default, less even than in the case of unsecured loans. Note that this latter class of loan is subject to a double evaluation, i.e. by the bank...

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  • Adverse Credit History. To be eligible for a Federal PLUS loan, the borrower may not have an adverse credit history, which is defined as having a bankruptcy, foreclosure, repossession, tax lien, wage garnishment or default determination in the last five years or a current delinquency of 90 or more days. Alternative Student Loan. See Private Student Loan. Asset.

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  • Green bonds involve the issuing entity guaranteeing to repay the bond over a certain period of time, plus either a fixed or variable rate of return. They can be asset backed securities 43 (see Breeze Bonds Case Study – Box 3) tied to specific green infrastructure projects or plain vanilla “treasury-style” bonds issued to raise capital that will be allocated across a portfolio of green projects (such as the World Bank‟s issuances).

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  • I understand that the tax credit recipient must comply with Oregon Department of Revenue requirements to document that the credit has been appropriately assigned, allocated or transferred, and claimed, and that compliance is subject to audit. . I understand that this tax credit application is a public record and that Oregon Department of Energy may be required by law to disclose information in this tax credit application to the public on request. I have marked any information that I request be kept confidential.

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  • This paper will explore how the fifi nancial regulatory structure propelled these three credit rating agencies to the center of the U.S. bond markets—and thereby virtually guaranteed that when these rating agencies did make mistakes, those mistakes would have serious consequences for the fifi nancial sector.

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  • The credit began as part of a broader effort by Senator Russell Long (Dem.-La.) to derail congressional and presidential interest in a negative income tax (NIT) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The initial debates highlighted a tension that exists to this day. The attraction of the NIT was that—as a universal antipoverty program—it would provide a guaranteed minimal standard of living to all in an administratively efficient way (through the tax system) without having the notches and high cumulative marginal tax rates that characterize a patchwork system of narrower pro- grams.

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  • The unified procedure reduces the ex ante costs of choosing one procedure over the other as well as the ex post costs of shifting from one procedure to the other in case wrong procedure was chosen. The reform also introduced a number of new systems into the rehabilitation proceeding, such as comprehensive stay order, absentee voting, etc. Moreover, basic ideas of debtor-in-possession (“DIP”) are incorporated into the receiver system, and secured and unsecured creditors are guaranteed the liquidation value of their collateral and the corporate value.

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  • FCRA and market-based cost estimates alike take into account expected losses from defaults by borrowers. However, because FCRA estimates use Treasury interest rates instead of market-based rates for discounting, FCRA estimates do not incorporate the cost of the market risk associated with the loans.

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  • The federal government supports some private activities—such as home ownership, postsecondary education, and certain commercial ventures—through credit assistance offered to individuals and businesses. Some of that assistance is in the form of direct federal loans, and some is through federal guarantees of loans made by private financial institutions. At the end of fiscal year 2011, about $2.7 trillion was outstanding in such federal direct loans and loan guarantees.

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  • Three options emerged for harmonising the scope of institutions that are deemed to provide sufficient guarantees in terms of prudential regulation and capital requirements to fulfil the task of being a depositary. The impact assessment concludes that both credit institutions and regulated investment firms provide sufficient guarantees in terms of prudential regulation, capital requirements and effective supervision to act as UCITS depositaries. Other institutions (such as, e.g.

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  • Progress Microfinance has been implemented through two actions, both of which are managed by EIF. They are: 1) a guarantee instrument to providers of micro-credit (funded entirely by the European Commission); and 2) a structured investment vehicle set up under Luxembourg law, the European Progress Microfinance Fund, funded by the European Commission and the EIB.

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  • It is also important to note that our definition of support is narrow and excludes certain instances of sponsor intervention to protect MMMFs from losses. Specifically, direct support excludes support in the form of Capital Support Agreements (CSAs) and/or Letters of Credit (both of which provided guarantees on individual or a portfolio of securities) that were not drawn upon - even where such facilities were important in maintaining the market value NAVs of the funds.

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  • Government incentives and guarantees can then also be used – from support for research and development (R&D) - which affects operational efficiency- to investment incentives (capital grants, loan guarantees and low-interest rate loans), taxes (accelerated depreciation, tax credits, tax exemptions and rebates), and price-based policies at the output stage (which affect revenue streams - e.g. feed-in tariffs), or policies which target the cost of investment in capital by hedging or mitigating risk.

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  • With several (not joint) guarantees enhanced by seniority and collateral, each guaranteeing Member State would again remain liable for its own share of Stability Bond issuance. However, to ensure that Stability Bonds would always be repaid, even in case of default, a number of credit enhancements could be considered by the Member States. First, senior status could be applied to Stability Bond issuance. Second, Stability Bonds could be partially collateralised (e.g. using cash, gold, shares of public companies etc.).

    pdf54p enter1cai 16-01-2013 25 4   Download


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