Xem 1-20 trên 32 kết quả Crystallography
  • International Tables for Crystallography, Volume F, Crystal- lography of Biological Macromolecules, was commissioned by the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) in recognition of the extraordinary contributions that knowledge of macro- molecular structure has made, and will make, to the analysis of biological systems, from enzyme catalysis to the workings of a whole cell.

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  • Single crystal X-ray crystallography is the most common and easily accessible way to determine the molecular structure of any crystalline material. This method provides two kinds of information which are needed for understanding both single molecule properties and bulk material properties: 1. Molecular Structure - Single Molecules: Unambiguous and three-dimensional information about the structure of the molecular entities.

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  • The advent of X-ray diffraction in the early twentieth century transformed crystallography from an area of scientific inquiry largely limited to physics, mineralogy, and mathematics, to a highly interdisciplinary field which now includes nearly all life and physical sciences as well as materials science and engineering.

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  • The structure of cytochromec-550 from the nonphotosynthetic bacteria Paraccocus versutushas been solved by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 A˚ resolution, and reveals a high structural homology to other bacterial cyto-chromesc2. The effect of replacing the axial heme-iron methionine ligand with a lysine residue on protein structure and unfolding has been assessed using the M100K variant.

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  • PART 1 MATERIALS AND MECHANICAL DESIGN CHAPTER 1 STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS Charles H. Drummond III Department of Materials Science and Engineering Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 Effects of Structure on Properties 1. .2 Atomic Structure 1. .3 Bonding 1. .4 Simple Structures 1. .5 Crystallography 1. .6 States of Matter 1. .7 Polymorphism 1. .8 Defects 1.2 METALS 1.2.1 Structures 3 3 3 4 4 5 7 8 8 12 12 1.2.2 1.2.3 Alloys Noncrystalline Metals 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 1.3 CERAMICS 1.3.1 Crystalline Ceramics 1.3.2 Noncrystalline Ceramics 1.3.

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  • Quantum mechanics, shortly after invention, obtained applications in different area of human knowledge. Perhaps, the most attractive feature of quantum mechanics is its applications in such diverse area as, astrophysics, nuclear physics, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, solid state physics and nanotechnology, crystallography, chemistry, biotechnology, information theory, electronic engineering...

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  • The first version of this text was written to serve as lecture notes for a first term geology course in “Minerals and Rocks” at Aarhus Universityin Denmarkin 2003. In Aarhus this course is accompanied by a general “Introduction to Geology” course that presents, for example, the structure of the Earth, plate tectonics and paleontology. These topics are therefore not treated here, and some knowledge of the Earth´s structure and plate tectonicsis assumed.

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  • Within the last decade the interest in lipases has increased dramatically, and no doubt, this interest will be maintained in the future. Novel and powerful tools of molecular biology, crystallography, NMR technology and molecular modeling will continue to reveal new amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures of lipases. In addition, transgenic and knockout animal models as well as the use of specific inhibitors will add knowledge about their mode of interaction with lipid substrates, cleavage mechanism and physiological roles in humans....

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  • Candida albicansexo-b-1,3-glucanase (Exg; EC is implicated in cell wall b-d-glucan remodelling through its glucosyl hydrolase and⁄or transglucosylase activities. A pair of antiparallel phenylalanyl residues (F144 and F258) flank the entrance to the active site pocket. Various Exg mutants were studied using steady-state kinetics and crystallography aiming to understand the roles played by these residues in positioning the b-1,3-d-glucan substrate.

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  • X-ray crystallography of the nonheme manganese catalase fromLactobacillus plantarum(LPC) [Barynin, V.V., Whit-taker, M.M., Antonyuk, S.V., Lamzin, V.S., Harrison, P.M., Artymiuk, P.J. & Whittaker, J.W. (2001)Structure9, 725–738] has revealed the structure of the dimanganese redox cluster together with its protein environment. The oxidized [Mn(III)Mn(III)] cluster is bridged by two solvent molecules (oxo and hydroxo, respectively) together with a l1,3bridging glutamate carboxylate and is embedded in a web of hydrogen bonds involving an outer sphere tyrosine residue (Tyr42). ...

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  • The structural basis for the homotropic inhibition of pantothenate synthe-tase by the substrate pantoate was investigated by X-ray crystallography and high-resolution NMR spectroscopic methods. The tertiary structure of the dimeric N-terminal domain of Escherichia colipantothenate synthetase, determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.7 A˚ , showed a second molecule of pantoate bound in the ATP-binding pocket.

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  • The poorly known mechanism of inhibition of cholinesterases by inorganic mercury (HgCl2) has been studied with a view to using these enzymes as biomarkers or as biological components of biosensors to survey polluted areas. The inhibition of a variety of cholinesterases by HgCl2 was investi-gated by kinetic studies, X-ray crystallography, and dynamic light scatter-ing.

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  • Analysis of the molecular properties of proteins extracted from organisms living under extreme conditions often highlights peculiar features. We investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography the oxidation pro-cess, promoted by air or ferricyanide, of five hemoglobins extracted from Antarctic fishes (Notothenioidei).

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  • Multiprotein assemblies play major roles in most pathways involved in cell regulation and signaling. Weak binary interactions are transformed co-operatively into very specifi c systems, which achieve sensitivity, specifi city and temporal control. Due to the complexity and transience of these regulatory and signaling systems, a combination of in vivo, cell, biochemical, biophysical, and structural approaches is needed to investigate their structures and dynamics.

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  • Two structures of monomeric methionyl-tRNA synthetase, fromMycobac-terium smegmatis, in complex with the ligands methionine⁄adenosine and methionine, were analyzed by X-ray crystallography at 2.3 A˚ and at 2.8 A˚ , respectively. The structures demonstrated the flexibility of the multidomain enzyme. A new conformation of the structure was identified in which the connective peptide domain bound more closely to the catalytic domain than described previously.

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  • In ruminants, some leaf-eating animals, and some insects, defensive lyso-zymes have been adapted to become digestive enzymes, in order to digest bacteria in the stomach. Digestive lysozyme has been reported to be resis-tant to protease and to have optimal activity at acidic pH. The structural basis of the adaptation providing persistence of lytic activity under severe gastric conditions remains unclear.

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  • Enolase is a validated drug target inTrypanosoma brucei. To better charac-terize its properties and guide drug design efforts, we have determined six new crystal structures of the enzyme, in various ligation states and confor-mations, and have carried out complementary molecular dynamics simula-tions.

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  • The direct conversion of plant cell wall polysaccharides into soluble sugars is one of the most important reactions on earth, and is performed by cer-tain microorganisms such as Clostridium thermocellum(Ct). These organ-isms produce extracellular multi-subunit complexes (i.e. cellulosomes) comprising a consortium of enzymes, which contain noncatalytic carbohy-drate-binding modules (CBM) that increase the activity of the catalytic module.

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  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) designate a class of proteins that are able tobind toand inhibit the growthofmacromolecular ice. These proteins have been characterized froma variety of organisms. Recently, the structures ofAFPs fromthe spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) and the yellow meal-worm (Tenebrio molitor) have been determined by NMR and X-ray crystallography. Despite nonhomologous sequences, both proteins were shown to consist ofb-helices.

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  • Institute for Organic Chemistry, University of Karlsruhe, Germany; 2Institute for Organic Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary Elucidation of the 3D structure of histidine ammonia-lyase (HAL, EC from Pseudomonas putida by X-ray crystallography revealed that the electrophilic prosthetic group at the active site is 3,5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-i´ midazol-4-one (MIO) [Schwede, T.F., Retey, J., Schulz, G.E. (1999) Biochemistry, 38, 5355 –5361].

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