Enteric nervous system

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  • Probiotics may exert a multidirectional effects affecting the gene expression in intestinal cells. A number of positive effects of probiotics have been indicated, particularly their beneficial effect in the pathologic conditions including antibiotic-associated traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), lactose intolerance, dental caries, gastroduodenal ulcers due to Helicobacter pylori, hepatic encephalopathy, intestinal motility disorders and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

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  • Neural Control The small intestine and colon have intrinsic and extrinsic innervation. The intrinsic innervation, also called the enteric nervous system, comprises myenteric, submucosal, and mucosal neuronal layers. The function of these layers is modulated by interneurons through the actions of neurotransmitter amines or peptides, including acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), opioids, norepinephrine, serotonin, ATP, and nitric oxide. The myenteric plexus regulates smooth-muscle function, and the submucosal plexus affects secretion, absorption, and mucosal blood flow.

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  • Hirschsprung’s disease is one of the most important and most fascinating diseases in paediatric surgery. Our understanding of Hirschsprung’s disease is developing rapidly, not only in relation to its pathophysiology and the development of new surgical techniques, but especially in relation to new genetic findings.

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  • FELLOWS OF THE ASSOCIATION: In the endeavor to chronicle the lives and achievements of Kentucky Pioneers in Surgery, I shall not attempt the resurrection of village Hampdens or mute inglorious Miltons. The men with whom I deal were men of deeds, not men of fruitless promise. It may with truth be said that from Hippocrates to Gross few in our profession who have done enduring work have lacked biographers to pay liberal tribute to their worth. In justice to the unremembered few, I turn back the records of medicine for a century, and put my finger upon two names that in the bustling march of...

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  • Mercury, in its elemental form, is a liquid metal that can form a vapour at room temperature. Inhaling mercury vapours or ingesting mercury can cause serious injury or death. The body is able to excrete mercury slowly; if the level of exposure is not too high, recovery can take place following accidental or short-term exposure. High levels of exposure may cause birth defects, permanent brain or kidney damage, and death. Mercury becomes more poisonous when it is converted to methylmercury (the principal form found in fish) because it is able to enter blood and organs, especially the brain.

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