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Epidemiology of cancer

Xem 1-20 trên 275 kết quả Epidemiology of cancer
  • The population of Western countries is aging, and cancer in older aged persons is becoming increasingly common. The management of these neoplasms is a novel problem. Direct information on the outcome of cancer prevention and of cytotoxic chemotherapy in older individuals is scarce, especially for those aged 80 and over, and it is not clear whether the same process should direct medical decisions in younger and older persons. It is reasonable to assume that the benefits of cancer prevention and treatment diminish and the dangers increase with age.

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  • There is growing evidence on the importance of studies focusing on mechanisms and strategies leading to cancer prevention. The plethora of approaches include regulation of oxidative stress using antioxidant therapies, carefully balanced diets and living habits, epidemiological evidence and molecular approaches on the role of key biological molecules such as antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, proteins and naturally occurring free radical scavengers as well as controversial results and clinical applications. These are some of the topics that this book highlights.

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  • In its fifth edition, Cancer Medicine has been named eponymously to honor its founding editors James F. Holland and Emil Frei III, two giants of medical oncology. The Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine reflects their dedication to innovative, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary care of cancer patients, as well as their belief in the importance of grounding such care in a more fundamental understanding of cancer biology. It is to their vision and the example that they have established over the last four decades that this book is dedicated.

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  • The goal of cancer treatment is first to eradicate the cancer. If this primary goal cannot be accomplished, the goal of cancer treatment shifts to palliation, the amelioration of symptoms, and preservation of quality of life while striving to extend life. The dictum primum non nocere is not the guiding principle of cancer therapy. When cure of cancer is possible, cancer treatments may be undertaken despite the certainty of severe and perhaps life-threatening toxicities.

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  • Physical Activity Physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of colon and breast cancer. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed. However, such studies are prone to confounding factors such as recall bias, association of exercise with other health-related practices, and effects of preclinical cancers on exercise habits (reverse causality). Recommending adults to engage in at least 30 min of vigorous activity for ≥3 days a week is good health advice, though its effects on cancer incidence are unproven.

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  • Improved understanding of carcinogenesis has allowed cancer prevention and early detection (also known as cancer control) to expand beyond the identification and avoidance of carcinogens. Specific interventions to prevent cancer in those at risk, and more sensitive and specific screening for early detection of cancer are the goals. Carcinogenesis is not simply an event but a process, a continuum of discrete cellular changes over time resulting in more autonomous cellular processes.

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  • Joanna Didkowska PhD works in the Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Registry at the Maria Sklodowska Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology in Warsaw, Poland. Since 1999, she has been Chair of the Association of Cancer Registries in Poland. She focuses on descriptive cancer epidemiology in Poland, especially prediction models, and the determinants of the health status of Poles and inhabitants of central and eastern Europe. She works on analyses of data from the National Cancer Registry.

    pdf0p khongmuonnghe 07-01-2013 32 3   Download

  • Document introduction of content: Introduction, methodology and literature review; epidemiology of colorectal cancer; screening tests and evidence - Stool tests, occult blood, and DNA; screening tests and evidence - Endoscopy and CT colonography, cost-Effectiveness of CRC screening; cascades – Tooling up for screening, where to get help, useful web sites, guidelines and selected references.

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  • (bq) part 1 book “cancer epidemiology and prevention” has contents: morphological and molecular classification of human cancer, genetic epidemiology of cancer, application of biomarkers in cancer epidemiology, causal inference in cancer epidemiology,… and other contents.

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  • Cancer chemoprevention has been continually evolving ever since the term was coined in the 70s. From the original approaches of identifying chemopreventive agents from the dietary constituents based on the epidemiological data to the current status of adapting them from the molecular targets, significant understanding of cancer as a disease and its possible prevention has been achieved.

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  • Worldwide, childhood cancer is rare. In addition, a distinct variation in incidence, type distribution and the demographics. We conducted a study on the epidemiology of childhood cancer at Central Zone of Vietnam, in two hospitals: Hue Central Hospital and Danang Hospital of Women and Children, during the period of April 2014 - July 2019.

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  • Fungal infection of nails or onychomycosis is non-life threatening disease commonly caused by dermatophytes. The infection is also caused by non dermatophytes like yeasts and non dermatophytic moulds. There are various factors which play an important role in causation of onychomycosis.

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  • Epidemiological studies have clarified the potential associations between regular aspirin use and cancers. However, it remains controversial on whether aspirin use decreases the risk of cancers risks. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis to assess the associations between aspirin use and cancers.

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  • There is limited data in Ghana on the epidemiology of HPV and cervical neoplasia and their associations with HIV. This study aimed to compare among HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-seronegative Ghanaian women: (1) the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with cervical HPV infection; and (2) the prevalence and risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology.

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  • Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer diagnosed in Western populations. Autopsy studies have shown that with increasing age, the majority of men will develop microscopic foci of cancer (often termed “latent” prostate cancer) and that this is true in populations that are at both high and low risk for the invasive form of the disease (1). However, only a small percentage of men will develop invasive prostate cancer. The prevalence of prostate cancer is, thus, very common; but to most men, prostate cancer will be only incidental to their health and death....

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  • The epidemiology of esophageal cancer in the Western world has changed dramatically over the last two decades. Up until the 1970s most esophageal cancers were of the squamous cell type, affecting mostly elderly men drawn from the poorer social classes and influenced by smoking and alcohol consumption. Since then there has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma, which tends to affect more affluent white men, often in their most productive years of life

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  • In the past 15 years, molecular biologists and geneticists have uncovered some of the most basic mechanisms by means of which normal stem cells in a certain organ or tissue develop into cancerous tumors. This biological knowledge serves as a basis for various models of carcinogenesis.

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  • Neither randomized clinical trials nor meta- analysis are available and evidence is based on a number of retrospective studies with multivariate for mortality risk factors or data from national cancer registries (Gilliland et al., 1997; Hundahl et al., 1998). Unfortunately, very remarkable differences in patient’s selection, staging systems, and clinical management affect the available studies. In particular, radioiodine treatment is not routinely carried out in a standard manner and outcome results of different studies are thus not comparable (Sciuto et al., 2009).

    pdf180p wqwqwqwqwq 20-07-2012 68 5   Download

  • Tham khảo sách 'cancer medicine 5_2', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • The field of medical genetics has traditionally focused on chromosomal abnormalities (Chap. 63) and Mendelian disorders (Chap. 62). However, there is genetic susceptibility to many common adult-onset diseases, including atherosclerosis, cardiac disorders, asthma, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, diabetes mellitus, macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, psychiatric disorders, and many forms of cancer.

    pdf16p socolanong 25-04-2012 52 3   Download

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