Epigenetic mechanisms

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  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise species of short noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Recent studies have demon-strated that epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and his-tone modification, not only regulate the expression of protein-encoding genes, but also miRNAs, such as let-7a, miR-9, miR-34a, miR-124, miR-137, miR-148 and miR-203.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài:Silencing of human T-cell leukemia virus type I gene transcription by epigenetic mechanisms

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Epigenetics and dermatology" presents the following contents: Introduction to epigenetics, laboratory methods in epigenetics, epigenetics and fibrosis, epigenetic modulation of hair follicle stem cells, epigenetics and the regulation of inflammation,...

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  • There is growing evidence on the importance of studies focusing on mechanisms and strategies leading to cancer prevention. The plethora of approaches include regulation of oxidative stress using antioxidant therapies, carefully balanced diets and living habits, epidemiological evidence and molecular approaches on the role of key biological molecules such as antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, proteins and naturally occurring free radical scavengers as well as controversial results and clinical applications. These are some of the topics that this book highlights.

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  • In recent years, a considerable amount of research has been focused on estab-lishing the epigenetic mechanisms associated with DNA and the core histones. This effort is driven by the fact that epigenetics is intimately involved with genomics in a whole range of molecular processes. However, there is now a consensus that the epigenetics of the linker histones are just as important.

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  • Epigenetic mechanisms control eukaryotic development beyond DNA-stored information. There are several pathways, including histone tail mod-ifications, histone variant incorporation, nucleosome remodelling, DNA methylation and noncoding RNAs that together all contribute to the dynamic ‘make-up’ of chromatin under distinct developmental options.

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  • We all know only too well that our way of life, the food we eat, smoking, stress or environmental toxins infl uence our health. But we have just started to learn how these environmental factors cooperate with our hereditary genetic dispositions to determine health or the development of diseases. Moreover, we did not know until recently that all these factors may also infl uence the health of our children and grandchildren to whom we may transmit functional changes of our genes.

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  • The medical consequences of operating outside of the normal boundaries of a well tuned musculo-tendinous system are also poorly understood, although clearly recognized in the persistent atrophy experienced in microgravity despite rigorous exercise programs. Muscle force generation is length and velocity sensitive. The process is repetitive in the sense that muscles will always generate force based on their length-tension and forcevelocity properties, causing tendon deformation.

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  • The human genome is largely made of complex sequences evolved over time due to replication,mutations and insertion of foreign DNA. Based on the nucleotide distribution and functional significance, the genome has been categorized into different block of sequences, namely genes or coding and non-coding regions. A special type of sequence located near genes, in relation to spread of DNA methylation and dinucleotide frequencies are the CpG islands1.

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  • Different types of mutation can vary in size, from structural variants to single base-pair substitutions, but what they all have in common is that their nature, size and location are often determined either by specific characteristics of the local DNA sequence environment or by higher order features of the genomic architecture. The genomes of higher organisms are now known to contain "pervasive architectural flaws" in that certain DNA sequences are inherently mutation prone by virtue of their base composition, sequence repetitivity and/or epigenetic modification....

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  • Aimed at shedding light on the possible options for developing countries to make use of agri- environmental and rural development measures within the framework of the WTO, this paper surveys those programs used in the Quad that are considered non or at most minimally trade distorting, non-discriminatory and otherwise consistent with current WTO rules. Furthermore, it tries to illustrate the possible outcomes in the ongoing negotiations in the WTO on the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) from a developing country viewpoint, related to the types of mechanisms surveyed above. ...

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  • In many developing countries, international migration has emerged as a significant phenomenon. Within the context of globalization, people have become more mobile, and transient, both physically and technologically. The flows of international tourists around the world have increased to the order of millions. People working for transnational corporations have moved into different regions of the world where companies are expanding or i ntensifying their activities.

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  • The demand and supply side of the housing markets have been diverging for a while now. New households’ formation indicates a need for new dwellings to the extent of some 233,000 per year 4 . There is already a substantial backlog in building homes for individual households. The need for new dwellings is clear. Supply, demand and the price mechanism do not seem to get the market moving in the desired direction. The main cause is that the supply is driven by demand, but demand is not driven by supply but by individual households’ income and home equity levels. The...

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  • Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications, control eukaryotic development beyond DNA-stored information. Intrigu-ingly, there is an under-representation of repressive marks in quies-cent (resting) cells, stem cells and regenerating cells, but a selective accumulation of aberrant histone lysine methylation profiles in aging, ‘‘stressed’’ and tumor cells, particularly for the H3K9, H3K27 and H4K20 methyl marks.

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  • During mammalian development, it is essential that the proper epigenetic state is established across the entire genome in each differentiated cell. To date, little is known about the mechanism for establishing epigenetic modi-fications of individual genes during the course of cellular differentiation.

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  • For decades, endocytosis has been recognized as a fundamental cellular process that regulates the uptake of small molecules (cell surface proteins, bacteria, toxins, etc.) into the cell. So why, after years of study, does this simple process warrant more discussion? Anyone who has examined the endocytic pathway will appreciate that this conceptually simple mechanism is highly complex and sophisticated. Like ballet dancers who make their synchronous performance seem effortless, the cell brings in molecules via a carefully choreographed mechanism.

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  • The transcription factor ZBP-89 has been implicated in the induction of growth arrest and apoptosis. In this article, we demonstrate that ZBP-89 was able to restrain senescence in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells, through epigenetically regulating p16 INK4a expression.

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  • Epigenetics refers to heritable phenotypic alterations in the absence of DNA sequence changes, and DNA methylation is one of the extensively studied epigenetic alterations. DNA methylation is an evolutionally con-served mechanism to regulate gene expression in mammals.

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  • Cancer may constitute the most extensively studied disease entity of our time. Nevertheless, our comprehension of the cellular and molecular pathology of malignant transformation is incomplete. In view of the diverse clinical presentations of various malignancies, doubts may be raised as to whether it is appropriate to refer to cancer as one group of disease states. The notion of malignant tumors as a pathologic and pathophysiologic class of conditions begs the question for defining criteria that characterize all malignant growths, regardless of their tissue of origin....

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  • he 2004-05 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey is the most recent in a series of national surveys conducted in Tanzania to meas- - ure levels, patterns, and trends in fertility, family planning, and health indicators. he previous surveys were carried out in 1991-92, 1994, 1996, and 1999. he 2004-05 TDHS was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). he 2004-05 survey included a nationally representative sample of 10,329 women and 2,635 men from approximately 9,700 households.

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