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Giáo trình niit quarter 2

Xem 1-20 trên 25 kết quả Giáo trình niit quarter 2
  • In the network model, data is represented using a collection of records. The records are related to each other using links. Each record consists of fields and each field contains a single data value. A data structure diagram can be used to represent the design of a network model.

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  • A domain is a set of data values that are of the same type. Every value in an attribute must be drawn from the underlying domain. However, every value in the domain may not appear in the table. Domains are primarily conceptual and no current RDBMS supports this concept in the complete sense. A relation is a collection of domains and consists of two parts, a heading and a body.

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  • An exception is termed as an abnormal condition encountered by an application during execution. Exception handling is the process of providing an alternative path of execution when the application is unable to execute as desired. This chapter describes exceptions. It explains how to implement the try, catch, and finally blocks. In addition, it also discusses the implementation of user-defined exceptions.

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  • New Era is a manufacturing company that has two types of suppliers. The first type of suppliers allow credit and the second type of suppliers insist on payment in cash before delivery. The manufacturer wants to maintain information on these two types of suppliers separately. For the credit suppliers, “credit period” and “credit limit” have to be recorded. For the cash suppliers, “date of payment” needs to be stored. John is the database administrator at New Era. He needs to draw an E/R diagram to represent the above situation. ...

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  • Entities do not exist in isolation. They have some type of relationship with each other. Similarly, in C#, the classes in a program can be related to each other. Identifying and establishing relationships between classes is a critical aspect of OOP. This chapter identifies the relationship between classes. It discusses the use of classes and inheritance. In addition, this chapter discusses the use of abstract classes, sealed classes, and interfaces.

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  • In this lesson, you will learn to: Define a Database Management System (DBMS) Identify the different DBMS users Describe the need for a database system Define the architecture of a DBMS in terms of: External level Define a Database Management System (DBMS) Identify the components of a DBMS Describe the need for a database system Define the architecture of a DBMS in terms of: • External level • Conceptual level .

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  • Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is one of the most popular methodologies in software development. It offers a powerful model for creating computer programs. It speeds the program development process, improves maintenance, and enhances reusability of programs. This chapter introduces object-oriented methodology and discusses the concepts of objects, classes, messages, and methods. It provides an overview of the phases involved in object-oriented analysis and design.

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  • A program executes as a single, sequential flow of control. A program can also be designed to execute multiple tasks. To execute multiple tasks in your program, you can use threads. This chapter discusses implementation of threads and their life cycle. The chapter also discusses implementing multiple threads and prioritizing threads. In addition, this chapter discusses thread synchronization and communication between processes.

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  • Attributes are a simple technique for adding metadata information and behavior to code within applications. You use the reflection technique to pick the attribute related information at runtime. This chapter introduces attributes and reflection and the functions they perform in C# applications. This chapter discusses attribute syntax, and how to use some of the predefined attributes. This chapter discusses also discusses how to create customized user-defined attributes. In addition, this chapter discusses reflection and how to use it to extract attribute related information. ...

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  • Objects contain data and methods to send and receive messages. Data members of objects can have a different scope or visibility. You use access specifier to define the scope of data member and method. This chapter introduces the concept of abstraction and encapsulation. It discusses the implementation of encapsulation by using access specifiers. It also explains the concept of using methods. In addition, the chapter also discusses the static variables and static functions.

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  • The variables in a program are allocated memory at run time in the system. In C#, variables are referred in two ways, value type and reference type. Value type variables contain data, whereas reference type variables hold the reference to the memory location where data is stored.

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  • Polymorphism is the ability that helps in executing different operations in response to the same message. In OOP, you can implement polymorphism by creating more than one function within a class that have the same name. The difference in the functions lies in the number and the types of parameters passed to each function. This chapter introduces the concept of polymorphism. It explains how to implement function overloading and operator overloading.

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  • Operators are used to compute results and compare the data values of a program. A program often involves decision-making and iterative tasks. To accomplish these tasks, programmers use various operators in the conditional and looping constructs. This chapter discusses the types of operators used in C# language. In addition, the conditional constructs and the looping constructs are also discussed.

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  • The .NET Framework enables you to create robust and scalable applications. The .NET Framework consists of Common Language Runtime, Common Language Specification, and the Just-In-Time compiler. Before you can use Visual Studio .NET for creating a console-based application, you need to understand the .NET Framework and the Visual Studio .NET Integrated Development Environment. This chapter introduces the features and components of the .NET Framework.

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  • The lesson introduces the concept of mapping E/R diagrams to tables with respect to regular entities, weak entities, relationships, attributes, subtypes, and supertypes. This lesson also contains tips for logical database design and covers the various types of keys and their applications.

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  • In this section, you will learn to: Describe the Top-down and Bottom-up approach Describe data redundancy Describe the first, second, and third normal forms Describe the Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF) Appreciate the need for denormalization

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  • In this section, you will learn to: Describe Transaction Processing Describe Transaction Recovery Define Transaction Log Identify the Concurrency Problems Identify the Types of Locks Define a Deadlock Describe the Security Scheme Concepts Establish the Security Scheme.

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  • For information to be saved permanently on a disk, you can use a file. The file is a stream of characters or a flow of related data. Streams enable you to write and read bytes to and from a storage medium, respectively. Streams can be used to perform fundamental operations such as read and write. This chapter introduces the concept of the file input and output operations. It explains the process of reading and writing in the text files and the binary files. It also explains the process of browsing through the Windows File System. ...

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  • Constructors and destructors perform special functions as members of classes. Constructors are used to initialize objects. Conversely, you can use destructors to delete an object when it is not required. This chapter introduces the concept of constructors and destructors. In addition, the chapter explains how to implement constructors and destructors. The chapter also explains how constructors and destructors help in identifying the life cycle of the object.

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  • In this lesson, you will learn to: Identify the following kinds of relations: Base tables Query results Views Create tables Alter tables Remove tables Query tables and work on them Define views Perform DML operations on views Identify the different types of views Identify data integrity constraints.

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