Health disparity

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: The health disparities cancer collaborative: a case study of practice registry measurement in a quality improvement collaborative

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  • Racial and ethnic minorities tend to receive a lower quality of healthcare than non-minorities, even when access-related factors, such as patients’ insurance status and income, are controlled. The sources of these disparities are complex, are rooted in historic and contemporary inequities, and involve many participants at several levels, including health systems, their administrative and bureaucratic processes, utilization managers, healthcare professionals, and patients.

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  • Natural disasters are becoming more frequent worldwide and there is growing concern that they may adversely affect short- and long-term health outcomes in developing countries. Prior research has primarily focused on the impact of single, large disaster events but very little is known about how small to moderate disasters, which are

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  • Banks, Muriel and Smith (2010);Banks, Berkman, and Smith, 2011). Based on self-reported prevalence of seven important illnesses (diabetes, heart attack, hypertension, heart disease, cancer, diseases of the lung, and stroke), Americans were much less healthy than their English counterparts. These differences were large at all points of the SES distribution. Biological markers of disease showed similar health disparities between Americans and the English, suggesting that these large health differences were not a result of differential reporting of illne...

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  • This chapter provides a brief overview of the history of women’s health and the array of factors that have played a central role in shaping it. First, it presents a background describing gender-based disparities in health care. It then discusses the cultural context in which women have been perceived by society, their representation in the health care workforce, and the development of the medical specialty of obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN), as well as social, economic, and political forces that have shaped the medical care provided to women....

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  • Indoor exposure to air pollutants causes very significant damage to health glo- bally – especially in developing countries. The chemicals reviewed in this volume are common indoor air pollutants in all regions of the world. Despite this, public health awareness on indoor air pollution has lagged behind that on outdoor air pollution. The current series of indoor air quality guidelines, focuses specifically on this problem.

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  • The ownership of insurers and the scope of their activities may also pose market challenges. While competition is arguably limited by the presence of few players, such as in the Irish insurance system, the existence of several players is not the only measure of market competitiveness. Mobility across insurers is low in many OECD countries. It is also sometimes challenging to establish incentives for “healthy” and equitable competition among PHI insurers, as they face incentives to concentrate on good risks, thereby failing to cover more vulnerable individuals.

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  • This book by Graham Thornicroft and Michele Tansella has a very clear objective: how better care could achieve better outcomes for people suffering from mental disorders. The preoccupation of the book is to derive bettermental health care from the best ethical, evidence-based and experience-based practices available. These two propositions, improving outcomes and framing interventions upon ethics, evidence and experience, are so clearly defined by the authors that this book represents a challenge to psychiatrists who sometimes forget the key link between ‘treatment’ and ‘care’.

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  • Health literacy is “the degree to which individuals can obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions.” It represents a constellation of skills necessary for people to function effectively in the health care environment and act appropriately on health care information. These skills include the ability to interpret documents, read and write prose (print literacy), use quantitative information (numeracy), and speak and listen effectively (oral literacy).

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  • Some health disparities are unavoidable, such as health problems that are related to a person’s genetic structure. However, most health disparities are potentially avoidable, especially when they are related to factors such as living in low-income neighborhoods or having unequal access to medical care. Reducing, if not eliminating, health disparities is an important goal for a number of reasons. Childhood is a time of enormous physical, social and emotional growth.

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  • Developing our service model will be a staged process, taking into account current opportunities to embed mental health promotion activities within a broader strategic agenda for chronic disease prevention. Common risk and protective factors (eg. participation in physical activity) and common target groups and settings (healthy children, workplaces, and communities) create strong links between these two outcome areas. Strategies to be implemented under Strategic Directions for Chronic Disease Prevention 2009–2012 will support the promotion of positive mental health....

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  • Health Disparities Across the continent, significant health disparities exist. In Canada, Aboriginal children rank with many children in the developing world on several key indicators, including infant mortality and injury deaths. In Mexico, children living in rural and indigenous communities experience worse health outcomes than those who live in cities. And, in the United States, children of color suffer poorer health on a number of indicators. Children’s health and security demand our attention.

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  • Health disparities are differences that occur by gender, race and ethnicity, education level, income level, disability, or geographic location. Health disparities exist among all age groups, including among children and adolescents. For example, low-income and children of color lag behind their more affl uent and White peers in terms of health status. Children lower in the socioeconomic hierarchy suffer disproportionately from almost every disease and show higher rates of mortality than those above them.

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  •  The right to health is NOT only a programmatic goal to be attained in the long term. The fact that the right to health should be a tangible programmatic goal does not mean that no immediate obligations on States arise from it. In fact, States must make every possible effort, within available resources, to realize the right to health and to take steps in that direction without delay.

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  • Health disparities in the United States correlating with race, ethnicity, language, economic status and other demographic factors have been documented by numerous researchers. According to the CDC, populations experiencing health disparities are growing as U.S. demographics change. The future of American health depends on understanding, addressing, reducing, and eliminating these disparities.

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  • For example, despite a lack of prenatal care that parallels that of African-Americans, Latina mothers are far less likely to deliver low birth-weight babies with medical complications. Researchers hypothesize that this is because of healthy behaviors (avoidance of alcohol, non-smoking, high consumption of fruits and vegetables) that are more common in immigrant Latino cultures. Researchers can pinpoint health disparities among communities, but they are also beginning to recognize the wealth of healthy traditions that other cultures have to offer.

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  • Put simply, public health has a bold mission: “protecting health and saving lives— millions at a time.” In medical fields, clinicians treat diseases or injuries, one patient at a time. But in public health, we prevent disease and injury. As researchers, practitioners and educators, we work with communities and populations. We identify causes of disease and disability, and we implement largescale solutions. For example, instead of treating a gun wound, we identify causes of gun violence and develop interventions.

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  • The department offers a broad selection of educational and research programs. These include infectious and chronic diseases encompassing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, digestive diseases, congenital malformations, cancer, and occupational diseases. Human genetics, statistical epidemiology, social and behavioral studies, health disparities and health outcomes, are of major interest. In addition to coursework, students are required to attend weekly seminars.

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  • Cancer Epidemiology aims to train future epidemiologists to investigate the causes of cancer, including host and environmental factors in human populations. The strategies for cancer prevention and control in the general population and within disproportionately affected population include providing a better understanding of cancerrelated behaviors, identifying new markers for the early detection of cancer, providing a better understanding of cancer-related health disparities and identifying and addressing barriers to care.

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  • Consumers, healthcare providers, public health professionals, employers, policymakers, and others recognize that ready access to relevant, reliable information would greatly improve everyone’s ability to address personal and community health concerns. 2,3 Medical errors and adverse effects have been documented to be severe problems for which information is a crucial part of the solution.

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