Lexicon and grammar

Xem 1-20 trên 30 kết quả Lexicon and grammar
  • The paper describes the development of software for automatic grammatical ana]ysi$ of u n l ~ ' U i ~ , unedited English text at the Unit for Compm= Research on the Ev~li~h Language (UCREL) at the U n i v e t ~ of Lancaster. The work is ~n'nmtly funded by IBM and carried out in collaboration with colleagues at IBM UK ( W ' ~ ) and IBM Yorktown Heights. The paper will focus on the lexicon component of the word raging system, the UCREL grammar, the datal~zlks of parsed sentences, and the tools that have been...

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  • Augmented transition network (ATN) grammars have, since their development by Woods [ 7; ~, become the most used method of describing grammars for natural language understanding end question answering systems. The advantages of the ATN notation have been su,naarized as "I) perspicuity, 2) generative power, 3) efficiency of representation, 4) the ability to capture linguistic regularities and generalities, and 5) efficiency of operation., [I ,p.191 ].

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  • Department of Linguistics The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas 78712 or trigram Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Ravi and Knight (2009) achieved the best results thus far (92.3% word token accuracy) via a Minimum Description Length approach using an integer program (IP) that finds a minimal bigram grammar that obeys the tag dictionary constraints and covers the observed data.

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  • I propose a uniform approach to the elimination of redundancy in CCG lexicons, where grammars incorporate inheritance hierarchies of lexical types, defined over a simple, feature-based category description language. The resulting formalism is partially ‘constraint-based’, in that the category notation is interpreted against an underlying set of tree-like feature structures. I argue that this version of CCG subsumes a number of other proposed category notations devised to allow for the construction of more efficient lexicons.

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  • The pale Usher—threadbare in coat, heart, body, and brain; I see him now. He was ever dusting his old lexicons and grammars, with a queer handkerchief, mockingly embellished with all the gay flags of all the known nations of the world. He loved to dust his old grammars; it somehow mildly reminded him of his mortality. ‘While you take in hand to school others, and to teach them by what name a whale-fish is to be called in our tongue leaving out, through ignorance, the letter H, which almost alone maketh the signification of the word, you deliver that...

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  • Morphological processes in Semitic languages deliver space-delimited words which introduce multiple, distinct, syntactic units into the structure of the input sentence. These words are in turn highly ambiguous, breaking the assumption underlying most parsers that the yield of a tree for a given sentence is known in advance. Here we propose a single joint model for performing both morphological segmentation and syntactic disambiguation which bypasses the associated circularity.

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  • Discourse markers ('cue words') are lexical items that signal the kind of coherence relation holding between adjacent text spans; for example, because, since, and for this reason are different markers for causal relations. Discourse markers are a syntactically quite heterogeneous group of words, many of which are traditionally treated as function words belonging to the realm of grammar rather than to the lexicon.

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  • This paper shows how DATR, a widely used formal language for lexical knowledge representation, can be used to define an I_TAG lexicon as an inheritance hierarchy with internal lexical rules. A bottom-up featural encoding is used for LTAG trees and this allows lexical rules to be implemented as covariation constraints within feature structures. Such an approach eliminates the considerable redundancy otherwise associated with an LTAG lexicon.

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  • In this paper, we focus on the features of a lexicon for Japanese syntactic analysis in Japanese-to-English translation. Japanese word order is almost unrestricted and Kc~uio-~ti (postpositional case particle) i s an i m p o r t a n t device which acts as the case label(case m a r k e r ) in Japanese sentences. Therefore case grammar is the most effective grammar for Japanese syntactic analysis. The case frame governed by )buc~n and having surface case(Kakuio-shi), deep case(case label) and semantic markers for nouns is analyzed here to illustrate how we apply case grammar to...

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  • Tree Unification Grammar is a declarative unification-bas~:l linguistic framework. The basic grammar stmaures of this framework are partial descriptions of trees, and the framework requires only a single grammar rule to combine these partial descriptions. Using this framework, constraints associated with various linguistic phenomena (reflexivisationin particular)~ be stated succinctlyin the lexicon.

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  • We describe a formal framework for interpretation of words and compounds in a discourse context which integrates a symbolic lexicon/grammar, word-sense probabilities, and a pragmatic component. The approach is motivated by the need to handle productive word use. In this paper, we concentrate on compound nominals. We discuss the inadequacies of approaches which consider compound interpretation as either wholly lexico-grammatical or wholly pragmatic, and provide an alternative integrated account. ...

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  • Parsing systems which rely on hand-coded linguistic descriptions can only perform adequately in as far as these descriptions are correct and complete. The paper describes an error mining technique to discover problems in hand-coded linguistic descriptions for parsing such as grammars and lexicons. By analysing parse results for very large unannotated corpora, the technique discovers missing, incorrect or incomplete linguistic descriptions. The technique uses the frequency of n-grams of words for arbitrary values of n.

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  • The design and implementation of a paraphrase component for a natural language questlon-answer system (CO-OP) is presented. A major point made is the role of given and n e w information in formulating a paraphrase that differs in a meaningful way from the user's question. A description is also given of the transformational grammar used by the paraphraser to generate questions. I• INTRO~ION fact, a lexicon and database schema are the only items which contain domain-specific information.

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  • In a text-produqtion system high and special demands are placed on the grammar and the lexicon. This paper will view these comDonents in such a system (overview in section 1). First, the subcomponente dealing with semantic information and with syntactic information will be presented se!:arataly (section 2). The probtems of relating these two types of information are then identified (section 3). Finally, strategies designed to meet the problems are proDose¢l and discussed (section 4).

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  • A lexicon-grammar is constituted ot the elementary sentences of a language. Instead of considering words as basic syntactic units to which grammatical information is attached, we use simple sentences (subject-verb-objects) as dictionary entries, Hence, s full dictionary item is a simple sentence with a description of the corresponding d i s t r i b u t i o n a l and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l properties.

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  • W e describe a methodology and associated software system for the construction of a large lexicon from an existing machine-readable (published) dictionary. The lexicon serves as a component of an English morphological and syntactic analyesr and contains entries with grammatical definitionscompatible with the word and sentence grammar employed by the analyser. W e describe a software system with two integrated components. One of these is capable of extracting syntactically rich, theory-neutral lexical templates from a suitable machine-readabh source. ...

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  • We describe how unknown lexical entries are processed in a unification-based framework with large-coverage grammars and how from their usage lexical entries are extracted. To keep the time and space usage during parsing within bounds, information from external sources like Part of Speech (PoS) taggers and morphological analysers is taken into account when information is constructed for unknown words.

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  • Natural language systems based on Categorial Unification Grammar (CUG) have mainly employed bottomup parsing algorithms for processing. Conventional prediction techniques to improve the efficiency of the • parsing process, appear to fall short when parsing CUG. Nevertheless, prediction seems necessary when parsing grammars with highly ambiguous lexicons or with noncanonical categorial rules. In this paper we present a lexicalist prediction technique for CUG and show thai this may lead to considerable gains in efficiency for both bottom-up and top-down parsing. ...

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  • We describe the use of XML tokenisation, tagging and mark-up tools to prepare a corpus for parsing. Our techniques are generally applicable but here we focus on parsing Medline abstracts with the ANLT wide-coverage grammar. Hand-crafted grammars inevitably lack coverage but many coverage failures are due to inadequacies of their lexicons. We describe a method of gaining a degree of robustness by interfacing POS tag information with the existing lexicon.

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  • In this paper we present results on developing robust natural language interfaces by combining shallow and partial interpretation with dialogue management. The key issue is to reduce the effort needed to adapt the knowledge sources for parsing and interpretation to a necessary minimum. In the paper we identify different types of information and present corresponding computational models. The approach utilizes an automatically generated lexicon which is updated with information from a corpus of simulated dialogues. The grammar is developed manually from the same knowledge sources. ...

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