Modes of action

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  • The mode of action of pesticides is extremely fascinating because the subject covers so many fields of biology and chemistry and has many practical implications. All disciplines of biology have developed greatly since 1,1,1-trichloro- di-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane — better known as DDT — and the other synthetic pesticides were introduced just after the Second World War.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7) and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV)

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  • Several peptides that specifically bind the HIV-1 integrase (IN) and either inhibit or stimulate its enzymatic activity were developed in our laborato-ries. Kinetic studies using 3¢-end processing and strand-transfer assays were performed to study the mode of action of these peptides.

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  • The mode of action of xylanase A from a phytopathogenic bacterium, Erwinia chrysanthemi, classified in glycoside hydrolase family 5, was investi-gated on xylooligosaccharides and polysaccharides using TLC, MALDI-TOF MS and enzyme treatment with exoglycosidases.

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  • Part 1 book "Antibiotic and chemotherapy expert consult" presentation of content: Historical introduction, modes of action, hharmacodynamics of anti-infective agents-target delineation and susceptibility breakpoint selection, the problem of resistance, antimicrobial agents and the kidneys, antibiotics and the immune system,... Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo.

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  • Covering all aspects of botany, ethnology, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacy, and medicine, this authoritative volume provides comprehensive coverage, presenting all important classes of natural products found in Asia and the Pacific, classified by their mode of action. With illustrations and photographs, each chapter includes figures of plants, concepts, and mechanisms of action. The author also presents cutting-edge research and recent developments in the field.

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  • Antibacterial Drugs can be classified according to their respective primary mode of action (color tone in 2 and 3). When bacterial growth remains unaffected by an antibacterial drug, bacterial resistance is present. This may occur because of certain metabolic characteristics that confer a natural insensitivity to the drug on a particular strain of bacteria (natural resistance). Depending on whether a drug affects only a few or numerous types of bacteria, the terms narrow-spectrum (e.g., penicillin G) or broad-spectrum (e.g., tetracyclines) antibiotic are applied.

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  • Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SS) form supramolecular protein complexes that are capable of transporting DNA or protein substrates across the bacterial cell envelope and, in many cases, also across eukaryotic target cell membranes.

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  • Propionate is used to protect bread and animal feed from moulds. The mode of action of this short-chain fatty acid was studied usingAspergillus nidulansas a model organism. The filamentous fungus is able to grow slowly on propio-nate, which is oxidized to acetyl-CoA via propionyl-CoA, methylcitrate and pyruvate. Propionate inhibits growth of A. nidulanson glucose but not on acetate; the latter was shown to inhibit propionate oxidation.

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  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative, phytopathogenic bacterium and is characterized by an unique mode of action on dicotyledonous plants: it is able to genetically modify the host, and because of this feature, it is used as a tool for transgenic plants. Many experiments have demonstrated that lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) play an important role for the disease development, as they are involved in the adhesion process of the bacterium on the plant cell wall.

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  • In this chapter, students will be able to: Understand how regulatory proteins work and why gene control is necessary for a cell’s survival; differentiate between transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of gene regulation; know how RNA polymerase is linked to control of transcription; list the four primary kinds of structural motifs and delineate their modes of action;...

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  • Environmental toxicology is the study of the impacts of pollutants upon the structure and function of ecological systems. For the purposes of this text, the emphasis will be upon ecological structures, from the molecular to the individual organism to the community and the ecosystem. The broad scope of environmental toxicology requires a multidisciplinary approach of a variety of specialists.

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  • The complexity level of using these techniques increases as the number of agents increases. Even though it has been mentioned in the multi-agent community the need to develop and implement methodologies, surprisingly, very little has been done and therefore many areas of science have been excluded.

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  • This book contains 20 chapters about the impact, environmental fate, modes of action, efficacy, and non-target effects of insecticides. The chapters are divided into 7 parts. Part 1 covers the non-target effects of insecticides, whereas part 2 is dedicated to integrated methods for pest control, in which insecticides are an important element for diminishing the populations of insect pests.

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  • Choosing the right theoretical lens. In order to answer the articulated research questions, this dissertation will build on neo-institutional theory (Meyer and Rowan, 1977; DiMaggio and Powell, 1983; Zucker, 1987; Scott, 1987b; DiMaggio and Powell, 1991). We will refer to the institutional environment, its generation and mode of action. Hereby, we use regulative, nor- mative, and cognitive institutions (Scott, 1995) to explain the influence of regulatory actors on strategy formation.

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  • The deployment of ‘new’ environmental policy instruments (NEPIs), namely eco-taxes and other market-based instruments (MBIs), voluntary agreements (VAs) and informational devices such as eco-labels, has grown spectacularly in recent years. In 1987, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) [OECD, 1994:177] reported that most national environmental policies still relied upon a regulatory or ‘command and control’ mode of action, but since then the number of MBIs has grown ‘substantially’ [CEC, 2000:2].

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  • Less than 20 years ago the field of cannabis and the cannabinoids was still considered a minor, somewhat quaint, area of research. A few groups were active in the field, but it was already being viewed as stagnating. The chemistry of cannabis was well known, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), identified in 1964, being the only major psychoactive constituent and cannabidiol, which is not psychoactive, possibly contributing to some of the effects. These cannabinoids and several synthetic analogs had been thoroughly investigated for their pharmacological effects.

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  • An exo-1,3-b-glucanase has been isolated from cultural filtrate of Trichoderma viride AZ36. The N-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme (m ¼ 61 ^ 1 kDa) showed no significant homology to other known glucanases. The 1,3-b-glucanase displayed high activity against laminarins, curdlan, and 1,3-b-oligoglucosides, but acted slowly on 1,3-1,4-b-oligoglucosides. No significant activity was detected against high molecular mass 1,3-1,4-bglucans. The enzyme carried out hydrolysis with inversion of the anomeric configuration.

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  • Among them Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species were most frequently cited and have been implicated in many human GIT disorders and have become commercially promoted to improve the health of the host. The mode of action of probiotics involves a mutual interaction with intestinal cells and other microflora present in the gut. In these two chapters, the influence of probiotics on digestion, absorption and barrier function, secretory functions and the postnatal maturation of intestinal mucosa are described....

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  • Seven distinct antigenic botulinum toxins (BNT-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F, and -G) produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum have been described. The human nervous system is susceptible to five toxin serotypes (BNT-A, -B, -E, -F, -G) and unaffected by 2 (BNT-C, -D). Although all toxins have different molecular targets, their action leads to the blockade of the cholinergic nerves. However, only the A and B toxins are available as drugs.

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