Number of vehicles on the road

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  • Discussion Questions & Answers: Cf: F & O (2005) and F, O, & F (2002) Q1. Why should a tax on gasoline provide a larger incentive to reduce air emissions from motor vehicles than an annual tax on owning a vehicle? Answer: The answer depends upon the magnitude of the fuel tax relative to the vehicle tax. A fuel tax targets the three components of emission reduction (i.e. a) number of vehicles on the road; b) miles per vehicle; and c) emissions per mile). On the other hand, an annual tax affects only the marginal decisions to put a car...

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  • Pollution from motor vehicle emissions in Switzerland will continue to decline over the next 25 years despite a projected increase in number of vehicles on the road, according to a forecast issued by Switzerland's environment agency Sept. 3. The study by the Swiss Federal Office for Environment, Forests, and Landscape nevertheless warns that the projected decrease in emissions is less than earlier estimates, prompting the need to examine additional pollution-control measures.

    pdf30p nhacnenzingme 23-03-2013 39 2   Download

  • Calculation of braking properties has always been one of the most important stages in the design of any vehicle. With the advent of various active safety systems, such as anti-lock braking systems, collision avoidance systems, automatic emergency braking systems, mathematical models have become much more complicated, but the approach to studying the braking process remains almost unchanged.

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  • Internal combustion engines (ICE) are the main sources of powering for almost all road vehicles, yet many other machines too. Being under strength development for a number of years, they have already reached a relatively high level of technical excellence and now they also produce acceptable output parameters. Still, they are not devoid of drawbacks. Harmful exhaust emissions can be pointed as the most important here. This problem is the main focus of interest for automotive researchers and engineers.

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  • Technical approaches seek to reduce the emissions produced by road vehicles using the transport system by intervening with the vehicles being used and the fuels they are burning. By definition, these approaches address per unit emissions rather than the amount of activity causing the emissions. An exclusively technological approach may be insufficient to address the growth in emissions, for a number of reasons. First, growt h in activity continuously puts pressure on technology gains.

    pdf65p saimatkhauroi 01-02-2013 35 3   Download

  • The 2001 White Paper "European Transport Policy for 2010: Time to Decide" sets out the ambitious target of reducing  the number of road fatalities with 50 percent by 2010. This requires a rapid increase in the efforts of all safety  stakeholders. To support these actions, the European Commission officially launched the eSafety initiative in April  2002.

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  • Throughout history, networks have served as the foundation for connecting humans to one another and their activities. Roads were laid, bridges built, and waterways crossed so that humans, be they on foot, on animal, or vehicle could traverse physical distance. The airways were conquered through flight. Communications, in turn, were conducted using the available means of the period, from smoke signals, drum beats, and pigeons, to the telegraph, telephone, and computer networks of today.

    pdf36p yeuthuong 31-10-2010 66 5   Download



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