Phenomena in biology

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  • During the past two decades, reductionist biological science has generated new empirical data on the molecular foundations of biological structure and function at an accelerating rate. The list of organisms whose complete genomes have been sequenced is growing by the week. Annotations of these sequences are becoming more comprehensive, and databases of protein structure are growing at impressive, indeed formerly unimaginable rates.

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  • Biological signal analysis1 encompasses several interdisciplinary topics that deal with analysing signals generated by various physiological processes in the human body. These signals could be electrical, chemical or acoustic in origin and an analysis of these signals are often useful in explaining and/or identifying pathological conditions of the human body. However, these signals in their rawest form do not provide much information and therefore, the motivation behind biological signal analysis is to extract (i.e. to reveal) the relevant information.

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  • Susan L.Lindquist*† and Steven Henikoff‡ *Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142; and ‡The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 Over the past half-century, the central dogma, in which DNA makes RNA makes protein, has dominated thinking in biology, with continuing refinements in understanding of DNA inheritance, gene expression, and macromolecular interactions. However, we have also witnessed the elucidation of epigenetic phenomena that violate conventional notions of inheritance.

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  • In the last two decades, fractional (or non integer) differentiation has played a very important role in various fields such as mechanics, electricity, chemistry, biology, economics, control theory and signal and image processing. For example, in the last three fields, some important considerations such as modelling, curve fitting, filtering, pattern recognition, edge detection, identification, stability, controllability, observability and robustness are now linked to long-range dependence phenomena. Similar progress has been made in other fields listed here.

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  • Performing experiments in low Earth orbit has been the focus of much of the research funded by NASA’s Physical Sciences Division (PSD) and its predecessors for over 30 years. This microgravity research can be divided into five broad areas, all of which focus primarily on phenomena that are strongly perturbed by gravity: biotechnology, combustion, fluid physics, fundamental physics, and materials science.

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  • Ionic methods of separation have been used since the industrial revolution in Europe to reduce hardness of water. In the mid-nineteenth century, British researchers treated various clays with ammonium sulfate or carbonate in solution to release calcium. In the early twentieth century, zeolite columns were used to remove interfering calcium and magnesium ions from solutions to permit determination of sulfate. Ionic separation procedures were used in the Manhattan project to purify and concentrate radioactive materials needed to make atom bombs.

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  • Another aspect of the distinction between mere experience and an experience involves the relationship between doing and undergoing. ‘A man does something; he lifts, let us say, a stone. In consequence he undergoes, suffers, something: the weight, strain, texture of the surface of the thing lifted. The properties thus undergone determine further doing’ (p. 44). Dewey goes on to say, ‘An experience has pattern and structure, because it is not just doing and undergoing in alternation, but consists of them in relationship. … ...

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  • Interfacial systems are frequently encountered in a large variety of phenomena in biology and industry. A few examples that come to mind are adsorption, catalysis, corrosion, flotation, osmosis, and colloidal stability. In particular, surface films are very interesting from a cognitive point of view. Surface science has a long history. For many years, natural philosophers were curious about interfacial phenomena because it was quite clear that matter near surface differs in its properties from the same matter in bulk...

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  • Innovation is a natural talent of humanity. Over several recorded millennia, curiosity has spurred discovery and the creation of artefacts that utilised natural substances or phenomena to serve human needs. The goal has been, often, to achieve something more quickly or with less effort or, in some cases, to extend curiosity by setting new goals.

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  • In the absence of serglycin proteoglycans, connective tissue-type mast cells fail to assemble mature metachromatic secretory granules, and this is accompanied by a markedly reduced ability to store neutral proteases. However, the mechanisms behind these phenomena are not known.

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  • The lipids found in biological systems are either hydrophobic (containing only nonpolar groups) or amphipathic (possessing both polar and nonpolar groups). The hydrophobic nature of lipid molecules allows membranes to act as effective barriers to more polar molecules. In this chapter, we discuss the chemical and physical properties of the various classes of lipid molecules. The following chapter considers membranes, whose properties depend intimately on their lipid constituents.

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  • All optical phenomena experience interference effects at some level. Even light from an incandescent light bulb has partial coherence that can lead to constructive or destructive interference when multiple light paths are combined at a detector. The ubiquitous nature of interference underlies many phenomena and techniques in biological optics. This chapter lays the foundation for interferometry applied to biology and medicine.

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  • Series of lectures by Nobel Prize-winning physicist Edwin Schrodinger, he explains biological phenomena in quantum mechanics, the contents of his forecasts on the introduction of DNA, from this lecture series Revolution Born Molecular born. Refer to the contents of the book Mind and Matter below to learn more about the issue.

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  • The phenomena of charge inversion and effective attraction between the like - charged spherical macromolecules in electrolyte solvent has been studied by using Poisson - Boltzmann mean-field theory, alongside the assumption that counterions condense on the surface of macromolecules to form a strongly correlation liquid.

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  • Biologically active product more appropriately called as “microbial inoculants” contains active strength of selective microorganisms like bacteria, algae, fungi; alone or in combination helps in increasing crop productivity by biological nitrogen fixation. Biological nitrogen fixation , the second most important biological process on earth after photosynthesis involves conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonium, a form of nitrogen that can be utilized by plants The rhizobia are a group of Gram-negative bacteria that form speciesspecific symbioses with legume plant.

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  • Bioluminescence is defined as the emission of light from a living organism that performs some biological function. Bioluminescence is one of the oldest fields of scientific study almost dating from the first written records of the ancient Greeks. This article describes the investigations of insect luminescence and the crucial role imparted in the activities of insect.

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  • Glioblastoma (GB) is considered one of the most lethal tumors. Extensive research at the molecular level may enable to gain more profound insight into its biology and thus, facilitate development and testing of new therapeutic approaches.

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  • To study cell biological phenomena which depend on diffusion, active transport processes, or the locations of species, modeling and simulation studies need to take space into account. To describe the system as a collection of discrete objects moving and interacting in continuous space, various particle-based reaction diffusion simulators for cell-biological system have been developed.

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  • The biological world is replete with phenomena that appear to be ideally modeled and analyzed by one archetypal statistical framework - the Graphical Probabilistic Model (GPM). The structure of GPMs is a uniquely good match for biological problems that range from aligning sequences to modeling the genome-to-phenome relationship.

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  • Bioelectric phenomena have been found to exert influence on various developmental and regenerative processes. Little is known about their possible functions and the cellular mechanisms by which they might act during Drosophila oogenesis.

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