Plant cells

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  • Plant cell walls represent the most abundant renewable resource on this planet. They are rich in mixed complex and simple biopolymers, which has opened the door to the development of wide applications in different technologic fields.

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  • WATER PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE in the life of the plant. For every gram of organic matter made by the plant, approximately 500 g of water is absorbed by the roots, transported through the plant body and lost to the atmosphere. Even slight imbalances in this flow of water can cause water deficits and severe malfunctioning of many cellular processes. Thus, every plant must delicately balance its uptake and loss of water. This balancing is a serious challenge for land plants. To carry on photosynthesis, they need to draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but doing so exposes them to...

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  • THE TERM CELL IS DERIVED from the Latin cella, meaning storeroom or chamber. It was first used in biology in 1665 by the English botanist Robert Hooke to describe the individual units of the honeycomb-like structure he observed in cork under a compound microscope. The “cells” Hooke observed were actually the empty lumens of dead cells surrounded by cell walls, but the term is an apt one because cells are the basic building blocks that define plant structure.

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  • Sugars play important roles as both nutrients and regulatory molecules throughout plant life. Sugar metabolism and signalling function in an intri-cate network with numerous hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, signalling and scavenging systems.

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  • Calcium signal transduction is a central mechanism by which plants sense and respond to endogenous and environmental stimuli. Cytosolic Ca 2+ ele-vation is achieved via two cellular pathways, Ca 2+ influx through Ca 2+ channels in the plasma membrane and Ca 2+ release from intracellular Ca 2+ stores.

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  • Potassium (K + ) is the most abundant inorganic cation in plant cells. Unlike animals, plants lack sodium⁄potassium exchangers. Instead, plant cells have developed unique transport systems for K + accumulation and release.

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  • The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is subjected to multiple interacting levels of control in plant cells. The first level is subcellular compartmentation. Plant cells are unique inhaving twodistinct, spatially separated forms of the PDC; mitochondrial (mtPDC) and plastidial (plPDC). The mtPDCis the site of carbon entry into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, while the plPDCprovides acetyl-CoAandNADHfor de novofatty acid biosynthesis.

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  • This book will emphasize the physiological and biochemical functions of plans, but it is important to recognize that these functions depends on structures, ehether the process is gas exchangge in the lesf, water,,,

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  • MINERAL NUTRIENTS ARE ELEMENTS acquired primarily in the form of inorganic ions from the soil. Although mineral nutrients continually cycle through all organisms, they enter the biosphere predominantly through the root systems of plants, so in a sense plants act as the “miners” of Earth’s crust (Epstein 1999). The large surface area of roots and their ability to absorb inorganic ions at low concentrations from the soil solution make mineral absorption by plants a very effective process.

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  • LIFE IN EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE presents a formidable challenge to land plants. On the one hand, the atmosphere is the source of carbon dioxide, which is needed for photosynthesis. Plants therefore need ready access to the atmosphere. On the other hand, the atmosphere is relatively dry and can dehydrate the plant. To meet the contradictory demands of maximizing carbon dioxide uptake while limiting water loss, plants have evolved adaptations to control water loss from leaves, and to replace the water lost to the atmosphere.

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  • PLANT CELLS, UNLIKE ANIMAL CELLS, are surrounded by a relatively thin but mechanically strong cell wall. This wall consists of a complex mixture of polysaccharides and other polymers that are secreted by the cell and are assembled into an organized network linked together by both covalent and noncovalent bonds. Plant cell walls also contain structural proteins, enzymes, phenolic polymers, and other materials that modify the wall’s physical and chemical characteristics.

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  • FC01 CELLS Cells are tiny building blocks that make up all living things. Cells are so small that you need a microscope to see them. ANIMAL CELL This is the control centre of the cell. It contains chromosomes with DNA instructions for all the cell’s activities, including instructions to make new cells. This is a jelly like substance, in which many of the cell’s activities, e.g. respiration and protein synthesis occur. This is a thin skin around the cell. It is selectivelt permeable, controlling what goes in and out of the cell....

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  • PLANT CELLS ARE SEPARATED from their environment by a plasma membrane that is only two lipid molecules thick. This thin layer separates a relatively constant internal environment from highly variable external surroundings. In addition to forming a hydrophobic barrier to diffusion, the membrane must facilitate and continuously regulate the inward and outward traffic of selected molecules and ions as the cell takes up nutrients, exports wastes, and regulates its turgor pressure.

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  • THE CYTOKININS WERE DISCOVERED in the search for factors that stimulate plant cells to divide (i.e., undergo cytokinesis). Since their discovery, cytokinins have been shown to have effects on many other physiological and developmental processes, including leaf senescence, nutrient mobilization, apical dominance, the formation and activity of shoot apical meristems, floral development, the breaking of bud dormancy, and seed germination.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Association of six YFP-myosin XI-tail fusions with mobile plant cell organelles

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Calcium-mediated perception and defense responses activated in plant cells by metabolite mixtures secreted by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp Original article đề tài: Autophagic response of higher plant cells to a prolonged period of sucrose deprivation...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Integrating transcriptional controls for plant cell expansion...

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  • Plant anion channels allow the efflux of anions from cells. They are involved in turgor pressure control, changes in membrane potential, organic acid excretion, tolerance to salinity and inorganic anion nutrition.

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  • Plant growth and metabolism are affected by various biotic and abiotic stimuli including microorganisms and insects attack as well as light and environmental stresses. Such a diverse plant response requires a communication system that uses a group of chemical messengers called hormones.

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