Protein engineering

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  • Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the most widely used herbicide in the world: glyphosate-based formulations exhibit broad-spectrum herbi-cidal activity with minimal human and environmental toxicity.

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  • Cell-free translation systems have developed significantly over the last two decades and improvements in yield have resulted in their use for protein production in the laboratory. These systems have protein engineering appli-cations, such as the production of proteins containing unnatural amino acids and development of proteins exhibiting novel functions.

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  • The molecular biology underlying protein aggregation and neuronal death in Alzheimer’s disease is not yet completely understood, but small soluble nonamyloid aggregates of the amyloidb-protein (Ab) have been shown to play a fundamental neurotoxic role.

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  • The caveolin gene family has three members in vertebrates: caveolin-1, caveolin-2, and caveolin-3. So far, most caveolin-related research has been conducted in mammals, but the proteins have also been found in other animals, including Xenopus laevis, Fugu rubripes, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Caveolins can serve as protein markers of caveolae (‘little caves’), invaginations in the plasma membrane 50-100 nanometers in

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  • Improvements in the fields of membrane-protein molecular biology and biochemistry, technical advances in structural data collection and processing, and the availability of numerous sequenced genomes have paved the way for membrane-protein structural genomics efforts. There has been significant recent progress, but various issues essential for

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  • Annexins are traditionally thought of as calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins, but recent work suggests a more complex set of functions. More than a thousand proteins of the annexin superfamily have been identified in major eukaryotic phyla, but annexins are absent from yeasts and prokaryotes. The unique annexin core domain is made up of four similar repeats

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  • In recent years, classical antibody-based affinity reagents have been challenged by novel types of binding proteins developed by combinatorial protein engineering principles. One of these classes of binding proteins of non-Ig origin are the so-called affibody binding proteins, functionally selected from libraries of a small (6 kDa), non-cysteine three-helix bundle domain used as a scaffold.

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  • Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) fromBacillus thermodenitrificans was engineered in such away that the polypeptide chainwas divided into two, between the biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyl transferase (CT) domains. The two proteins thus formed, PC-(BC) and PC-(CT+BCCP), retained their catalytic activity as assayed by biotin-dependent ATPase and oxamate-dependent oxalacetate decarboxylation, for the former and the latter, respectively. Neither activity was dependent on acetyl-CoA, in sharp contrast to the complete reaction of intact PC. ...

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  • Collection of reports on medical research published in the medical journal Critical Care helps you have more knowledge about medicine subjects: Should digestion assays be used to estimate persistence of potential allergens in tests for safety of novel food proteins?

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  • Opinion Progress towards mapping the universe of protein folds Alastair Grant, David Lee and Christine Orengo Address: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Correspondence: Alastair Grant. E-mail: comment Published: 29 April 2004 reviews Genome Biology 2004, 5:107 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at http://genomebiology.

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  • Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins, or sirtuins, are protein deacetylases dependent on nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and are found in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In eukaryotes, sirtuins regulate transcriptional repression, recombination, the celldivision cycle, microtubule organization, and cellular responses to DNA-damaging agents. Sirtuins have also been implicated in regulating the molecular mechanisms of aging. The Sir2 catalytic domain,

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  • Fluorescent proteins have become essential tools in molecular and biologi-cal applications. Here, we present a novel fluorescent protein isolated from warm water coral, Cyphastrea microphthalma. The protein, which we named vivid Verde fluorescent protein (VFP), matures readily at 37C and emits bright green light.

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  • We present a practical HPSG parser for English, an intelligent search engine to retrieve MEDLINE abstracts that represent biomedical events and an efficient MEDLINE search tool helping users to find information about biomedical entities such as genes, proteins, and the interactions between them.

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  • Gần đây, đối với các nhân tố sinh học dưới tế bào còn hình thành khái niệm công nghệ protein (protein engineering) và công nghệ gen (gene engineering). Công nghệ protein và công nghệ gen xuyên suốt và trở thành công nghệ chìa khóa nằm trong công nghệ sinh học thực vật, công nghệ sinh học động vật và công nghệ sinh học vi sinh vật.

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  • The study was conducted at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). In 2009, 46% of the students were born outside of Australia, approximately 30% were from a non-English speaking background, and 21% were enrolled as international students. In 2009, the faculties with the largest concentrations of international students were Business (34%) and Engineering and Information Technology (29%).

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  • Several new aspects have been highlighted: for example, a novel role for lipids as receptors which drive protein sorting, the diversity of the sorting events that occur at the level of the Golgi apparatus, and the cross talk between exocytosis and autophagy. Moreover, an interesting example of how the knowledge of these pathways is exploited to generate novel secretory routes to direct the synthesis of bio-molecules in “cell factories” is discussed.

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  • Undergraduate biomedical engineering programs and curricula are being rapidly developed across the United States. We perceive a correspondingly increasing need for biomedical engineering textbooks specifically designed for undergraduate readers. Many educators have come to appreciate that physiology and biology are not narrow, specialized applications to be ‘‘tacked onto’’ an engineering curriculum, but are instead rich subjects that can naturally elicit and benefit from the kinds of creative problem-solving and quantitative analyses that are hallmarks of engineering.

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  • The fields of biological and medical physics and biomedical engineering are broad, multidisciplinary, and dynamic.They lie at the crossroads of frontier research in physics, biology, chemistry, and medicine. The Biological and Medical Physics/Biomedical Engineering series is intended to be comprehensive, covering a broad range of topics important to the study of the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Its goal is to provide scientists and engineers with textbooks, monographs, and reference works to address the growing need for information....

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  • The life cycle of the retrovirus consist of several steps. It begins with the binding of the viral envelope to cellular receptors, which enables fusion of the viral envelope with the cellular membrane. Consequently, the viral particle is uncoated, liberating the viral core into the cell cytoplasm. The viral DNA is reverse transcribed to DNA. Then, the viral DNA is transported to the nucleus where it is integrated into the host cell’s genome. From there, viral DNA is transcribed to RNA, some of which is translated to proteins.

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  • With the introduction of genetic engineering of Escherichia coli by Cohen, Boyer and co-workers in 1973, the way was paved for a completely new approach to optimisation of existing biotech processes and development of completely new ones. This lead to new biotech processes for the production of recombinant proteins, e.g. the production of human insulin by a recombinant E. coli.

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