Serious disease

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  • Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by an irreversible deterioration of renal function that gradually progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CKD has emerged as a serious public health problem.

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  • Recurrent CDAD Overall, ~15–30% of patients experience recurrences of CDAD, either as relapses caused by the original organism or as reinfections following treatment (Table 123-2). Recurrence rates are higher among patients ≥65 years old and among patients who remain in the hospital after the initial episode of CDAD. Patients who have a first recurrence of CDAD have a high rate of second recurrence (33–65%). In the first recurrence, re-treatment with metronidazole is comparable to treatment with vancomycin.

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  • In the 1980s and early 1990s, receiving news that one was infected with HIV was a literal death sentence. No vaccine or cure for AIDS exists. Back then, people with HIV could expect to become ill with AIDS within about ten years after becoming infected, and then live only one to two years on average after that. The virus destroys immune cells, leaving those infected vulnerable to a whole host of opportunistic infections. Eventually, one of them causes death.

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  • An incurable condition is a condition that conventional medicine cannot cure. Usually these conditions are marked by serious suffering from the patient. There are many conditions that even using the incurable treatment, cannot be cured, an example of this is a birth defect. In other cases, it is the persons time to die, and so the condition is not curable, but the pain and suffering that the individual faces can be greatly reduced.

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  • Questions to ask are how serious would it be if a particular record 5 or 10 years from now were unavailable? What are the chances of it being needed? Are the consequences serious enough to justify keeping a large volume of records for long periods of time at considerable cost? Is the information available anywhere else? What would it cost to reconstruct the record if necessary? Answering these questions will lead to a more realistic approach to the problem of determining how long records should be kept....

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  • Therefore, ex vivo expansion of BMSCs is required to obtain a sufficient number of transplantable cells. Since BMSCs require several kinds of supportive factors for their growth, it is standard practice to use fetal bovine serum (FBS), while autologous human serum (HS) and pooled allogeneic HS have also been used. It has been suggested that FBS may not be favorable for clinical applications due to the possible risk of contamination (prions, viruses, zoonosis) or immunological reactions against xenogeneic serum antigens (Agata et al., 2009).

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  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), like hepatitis C and HIV, is a disease of our generation. Mostly unrecognized prior to 1980 and seldom taken seriously until the past few years, NAFLD has seemingly been thrust upon us unexpectantly like an orphaned child left at our clinical bedside. In fact, NAFLD was conceived during the industrial revolution, which caused food to be processed differently, provided that food more abundantly and made physical work less demanding.

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  • Recent experience illustrates this point. Consider the fact that the Fed cut interest rates sharply in response to two of the most serious financial crises in recent years: the October 1987 stock market break and the turmoil following the Russian default in 1998. Arguably, in retrospect, interest rate policy remained too easy for too long in both cases.

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  • What is alternative medicine? Attempts to define what is conventional and what is not conventional introduce a bias, no matter who the arbiter is who sets up the definitions (Table 1). Many alternative therapies pre-date conventional medicine by hundreds or thousands of years. Some are quite well known, others seem mysterious or strange, and some pose serious risks (Murray and Rubel 1992). Many of us use unconventional therapies acquired from grandparents, parents, or friends (chicken soup is perhaps the most famous) in our personal lives without a second thought.

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  • Tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria are the three most profound cause of death worldwide. In developing country tuberculosis is a serious problem. It is estimated that one third of the world’s population is infected with M. tuberculosis; however, only a minority (10%) of those infected ever develop clinical disease (Corbett et al., 2003). Such clinical diversity suggests that factors other than bacterial infection alone determine disease development.

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  • Other Diseases The power and versatility of gene transfer approaches are such that there are few serious disease entities for which gene transfer therapies are not under development. Besides those already discussed, other areas of interest include gene therapies for HIV and for neurodegenerative disorders.

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  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory arthritis of auto-immune origin that affects primarily the synovial joints, usually in a symmetrical pattern. It is the most common and most serious of the inflammatory arthritides, and it dominates clinical rheumatological practice (Silman 2002). Current evidence shows that prompt diagnosis and early instigation of definitive disease-modifying treatment can delay or avoid progression and enable patients to retain function that would otherwise be lost in this progressive and frequently disabling disease....

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  • Gender has thus been one of the most politicized issues in Afghanistan over the past 100 years, and attempts at reform have been denounced by opponents as un-Islamic and a challenge to the sanctity of the faith and family. During the years of turmoil, concerns about women's security led to the imposition of ever-stricter interpretations of socially acceptable female behavior, supported by the most conservative reading of the holy scriptures. Despite the rhetoric, women suffered from very serious human rights violations throughout the conflict.

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  • One of the most daunting of stockpiling issues continues to be medications, both the everyday medications used by our residents, and the potential of stockpiling antibiotics, vaccines, and antiviral agents. This will take very serious consideration of such issues as appropriate storage, shelf-life, prioritization of limited supplies, and the protection of these materials during disasters (Florida Health Care Association 2007). LTC staff look to their employers to provide guidance, education, protection, and a safe workplace.

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  • Plants have diseases just as animals do; not the same diseases, to be sure, but just as serious for the plant. Some of them are so dangerous that they kill the plant; others partly or wholly destroy its usefulness or its beauty. Some diseases are found oftenest on very young plants, others prey on the middle-aged tree, while still others attack merely the fruit. Whenever a farmer or fruit-grower has disease on his plants, he is sure to lose much profit. You have all seen rotten fruit. This is diseased fruit. Fruit rot is a plant disease. It costs...

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  • Mental Health All three countries have identified depression as a serious mental health problem among youth. They have all reported concerns about eating disorders. While the three countries have different measures of mental health and illness, all three recognize that better data and measures are needed to address this issue. Cancer For all three countries, cancer is the second leading cause of death for children age 5 to 14. Children in Mexico are more likely to die from leukemia (and other types of cancer) than are children in Canada and the United States.

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  • The second reason why contraception has gained importance is due to disease. As we will see at the end of this chapter,many serious diseases can be passed between people during sex. Some birth control methods are also important ways to reduce the transmission of certain diseases. Over time, various methods of birth control have been developed. Some methods are more effective than others. The most effective means of birth control is abstinence, that is, not having sexual intercourse.

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  • Palliative Care: The goal of palliative care is to improve the quality of a seriously ill person’s life, and to support the patient and family when faced with terminal illness. This includes managing physical symptoms, assessing psychological and spiritual needs, patient support system and discharge planning issues. Palliative care is part of hospice care, but it can begin any time during a patient’s illness. A team approach to palliative care is optimal, with the primary care provider and social services playing an active role.

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  • Nevertheless, the broad message of this analysis is fairly clear. Air pollution from maquiladoras has serious consequences for human health, including respiratory disease and premature mortality. However, maquiladoras are clearly not the leading cause of air pollution in Paso del Norte. Moreover, most maquiladoras are probably less important sources of dangerous air pollution than at least one notoriously polluting Mexican-owned industry. Finally, we find no evidence to suggest that maquiladora air pollution affects the poor disproportionately.

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  • But there are serious downsides. Unless questions are tested with a few people first and carefully worded, they may be easily misinterpreted. Hence, a poorly worded question can deliver useless or misleading results.8 Surveys tend to weight all performance aspects similarly, so if the director does a great job on community relations and finances but has failed at an area the board thinks is very minor, the less important category can “drag down” the overall score.

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