Structuring the problem

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  • (bq) part 2 book "data structures and problem solving using c++" has contents: stacks & compilers, utilities, simulation, graphs & paths, stacks & queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, hash tables, a priority queue - the binary heap, splay trees, merging priority queues, the disjoint set class.

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  • THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN undertook research, late in 1955, in the analysis of language structure for mechanical translation. Emphasis was placed on the use of the contextual structure of the sentence as a means of reducing ambiguity and on the formulation of a set of operative rules which an electronic computer could use for automatically translating Russian texts into English.

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  • part 1 book “data structures and problem solving using c++” has contents: arrays, pointers, and structures, objects and classes, templates, inheritance, design patterns, algorithm analysis, the standard template library, recursion, sorting algorithms, randomization, fun and games, stacks and compilers, utilities.

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  • part 2 book “data structures and problem solving using c++” has contents: simulation, graphs and paths, stacks and queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, hash tables, a priority queue - the binary heap, splay trees, merging priority queues, the disjoint set class,… and other contents.

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  • In this paper we use the representation method of braid groups to design Feymann integral for the distribution of probability in the problem of plastic deformation in the synergetic formalism. It will allow to see the connection of distribution of probabilities in our paper and the Gauss distribution in papers.

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  • In this paper the problem of optimal structure design, subjected to regular lifetime condition for all elements is considered. The author sets up the problem, proposes an iterative method for solving and apply the obtained results to a simple example.

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  • There is a bustling atmosphere in the headquarters of the globally active Confusio Corporation. Everything seems to be just fine. Yet, there is a bad atmosphere in the precious wood-paneled conference room of the managing director Paul Peppy. Peppy has drummed together his top managers from all important branch offices; a hard and uncompromising crackdown is urgently required! Concerning the topic of the crisis summit, he has intentionally left the participants in the dark.

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  • The authors present the complete guide to ANSI standard C language programming. Written by the developers of C, this new version helps readers keep up with the finalized ANSI standard for C while showing how to take advantage of C's rich set of operators, economy of expression, improved control flow, and data structures. The 2/E has been completely rewritten with additional examples and problem sets to clarify the implementation of difficult language constructs.

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  • Sentiment analysis of citations in scientific papers and articles is a new and interesting problem due to the many linguistic differences between scientific texts and other genres. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automatic identification of positive and negative sentiment polarity in citations to scientific papers. Using a newly constructed annotated citation sentiment corpus, we explore the effectiveness of existing and novel features, including n-grams, specialised science-specific lexical features, dependency relations, sentence splitting and negation features. ...

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  • Name ambiguity problem has raised urgent demands for efficient, high-quality named entity disambiguation methods. In recent years, the increasing availability of large-scale, rich semantic knowledge sources (such as Wikipedia and WordNet) creates new opportunities to enhance the named entity disambiguation by developing algorithms which can exploit these knowledge sources at best. The problem is that these knowledge sources are heterogeneous and most of the semantic knowledge within them is embedded in complex structures, such as graphs and networks. ...

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  • We are interested in the nature of content structures in terms of which it would be possible to account for reasoning processes in understanding natural language texts. One of the most crucial problems here at the present time is: how and by which mechanisms these reasoning processes are controlled and directed.

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  • As the EU sovereign debt crisis is in its second year, the lack of an accepted mechanism to deal with it is becoming dangerous to the integrity of the Euro and the EU itself. Several EU member countries found themselves in severe economic straights as the 2008 banking crisis and the ensuing recession forced them to face liquidity crises arising from a number of long term problems that were accentuated and made more severe.

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  • In this paper, we address the issue for learning better translation consensus in machine translation (MT) research, and explore the search of translation consensus from similar, rather than the same, source sentences or their spans. Unlike previous work on this topic, we formulate the problem as structured labeling over a much smaller graph, and we propose a novel structured label propagation for the task.

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  • We outline the problem of ad hoc rules in treebanks, rules used for specific constructions in one data set and unlikely to be used again. These include ungeneralizable rules, erroneous rules, rules for ungrammatical text, and rules which are not consistent with the rest of the annotation scheme. Based on a simple notion of rule equivalence and on the idea of finding rules unlike any others, we develop two methods for detecting ad hoc rules in flat treebanks and show they are successful in detecting such rules. This is done by examining evidence across the grammar and without making...

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  • Now on the same side a• the subjects' point of view. We see the point of view indicated by •patlal delxls In the r e p o r t of problem solving as reflec~ir~ an underlying allocation of effort (or attention). Pew errors occur with problem elements that •re given processing effort, while constraints that •re given little attention are more often violated. %n this way, these reports are reflecting changes Zn the organization of the problem element• that occur over the course of reaching a solution. ...

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  • Computer-based generation of natural language requires consideration of two different types of problems: i) determining the content and textual shape of what is to be said, and 2) transforming that message into English. A computational solution to the problems of deciding what to say and how to organize it effectively is proposed that relies on an interaction between structural and semantic processes. Schemas, which encode aspects of discourse structure, are used to guide the generation process.

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  • I propose a uniform approach to the elimination of redundancy in CCG lexicons, where grammars incorporate inheritance hierarchies of lexical types, defined over a simple, feature-based category description language. The resulting formalism is partially ‘constraint-based’, in that the category notation is interpreted against an underlying set of tree-like feature structures. I argue that this version of CCG subsumes a number of other proposed category notations devised to allow for the construction of more efficient lexicons.

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  • The structure of problem-solving discourse in the expert advising setting can be modeled by adding a layer of metaplans to a plan-based model of the task domain. Classes of metaplans are introduced to model both the agent's gradual refinement and instantiation of a domain plan for a task and the space of possible queries about preconditions or fillers for open variable slots that can be motivated by the exploration of particular classes of domain plans.

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  • This chapter and the next are devoted to enumeration, where the problem is to determine the number of combinatorial configurations described by finite rules, and do so for all possible sizes. This chapter presents the following content: Symbolic method, trees and strings, powersets and multisets, compositions and partitions, substitution.

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  • In this paper, the problem of actuator saturation control of a benchmark structure using hedge-algebras-based fuzzy controller (HAC) is presented. In HAC, linguistic values of linguistic terms are obtained through semantically quantifying mappings (SQMs) based on few fuzziness parameters of each linguistic variable without using any fuzzy set and inherent order relationships between linguistic values of each linguistic variable are always ensured.

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