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Tác hại của as

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  • Arsenic (As) là một nguyên tố có trong tự nhiên và ở trên bề mặt của vỏ trái đất chiếm khoảng 1 đến 2 mg Asen/kg Là một kim loại nặng. As tinh khiết có màu xám và ở dạng tinh thể rắn. Số thứ tự 33 trong bảng HTTH M = 74.92159g/mol; d = 5.73 g/cm3 Hầu hết các hợp chất As vô cơ và hữu cơ đều là bột màu trắng hoặc không màu, không bay hơi, không có vị đặc biệt. Vì vậy rất khó nói rằng trong thực phẩm, nước, không khí có hay không sự hiện...

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  • The indicator qualities of terrestrial invertebrates are widely recognized in the context of detecting ecological change associated with human land-use. However, the use of terrestrial invertebrates as bioindicators remains...

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  • Introduction: Blood, urine and stomach contents (including gastric lavage fluid and vomitus) are usually used as specimens for analysis of drugs and poisons for living subjects. A blood concentration of a toxin can be an indicator for estimation of intoxication degree. Urine sometimes contains large amounts of metabolites and/or an unchanged form of a toxin; it contains low levels of proteins, which usually interfere with analysis, and thus is suitable for screening tests using immunoassays without tedious pretreatments.

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  • Introduction: Small amount of drugs and poisons incorporated into human bodies are hidden among large amounts of biological components, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and membranes. It is not easy to detect only a target compound from such complicated matrices. Before instrumental analysis, extraction procedure is usually essential and very important.

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  • Introduction: Datura metel a (jimsonweed) is a plant belonging to the Solanacea family; and contains tropane alkaloids (belladonna alkaloids), such as atropineb (dl-hyoscyamine) and hyoscine (dl-scopolamine), in its seeds and every part of the plant. Its seeds and leaves have long been being used as a folk medicine in Japan. Seishu Hanaoka, a Japanese surgeon, first used this plant for general anaesthesia in 1804.

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  • Introduction: Phencyclidine (PCP) ( Fig. 8.1), a synthetic arylcyclohexylamine hallucinogen, had been first applied as an anaesthetic to animals and then to humans for a short period. PCP is known by street names of “angel dust” and “crystal”. Illicit use of PCP first appeared during mid-1960s along the West Coast, and then peaked in the United States in 1979; illicit PCP use declined by 1992. However, daily use of PCP has remained stable among young school seniors over the past decade; PCP is thus being an important drug of abuse [1–3]. It is being regulated as a subclass compound...

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  • Introduction: The identification of a causative toxin is one of the most important tasks in emergency medicine; it requires both rapidness and accuracy. In the Japan-shaking poisoning incidents taking place in 1998, such as curry (arsenous acid) poisoning in Wakayama, sodium azide poisoning in Niigata and cyanide poisoning in Nagano, the importance of a rapid and accurate analysis system for poisons was well recognized by Japanese people and goverment.

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  • Introduction: Barbiturates are being widely used as antiepileptics, hypnotics and anaesthetics ( Figure 6.1 and Table 6.1). The incidence of barbiturate poisoning cases tends to increase in Japan ( Figure 6.2) [1]. A majority of the barbiturate drugs is being controlled by the Narcotics ⊡ Figure 6.1 Structures of barbiturates. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005 302 Barbiturates ⊡ Figure 6.2 Incidence of fatal barbiturate poisoning cases. Since fatal cases due to Vegetamin® tablets containing phenobarbital are many, its incidence rate is also shown in this figure.

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  • Introduction: Amphetamines are a group of drugs stimulating the central nervous system; they act on the cerebral cortex to enhance psychic activities, resulting in the removal of general fatigue and drowsiness and thus in the transient improvement of working efficiency. Their abuse causes dependence, hallucination, delusion and changes in personality. Because of such harmfulness of the drugs, their use and possession are prohibited by the Stimulant Drugs Control Law in Japan [1].

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  • Introduction: Pentazocine ( Fig. 5.1) is a non-narcotic analgesic, but shows mild dependence; there are many cases of pentazocine abuse especially for medical and co-medical workers. The drug is being regulated as a subclass compound of narcotics (DEA class: IV). Pentazocine in both antemortem and postmortem specimens is being analyzed by GC [1–4], HPLC [5–7] and GC/MS [8]. In this chapter, a simple method for GC/MS analysis of pentazocine in human whole blood and urine is presented. ⊡ Figure 5.1 Structures of pentazocine and dextromethorphan (IS). Reagents and their preparation i.

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  • Introduction: Butyrophenone drugs including haloperidol are being widely used in the field of psychiatry. The acute butyrophenone poisoning incidents sometimes take place; in such cases, the analysis of a butyrophenone becomes necessary in forensic toxicology or clinical toxicology. Their analysis is being made by GC [1–4], GC/MS [5–6], HPLC [7–15] and LC/MS [16,17]. Six butyrophenones are now available as ethical drugs in Japan ( Fig. 2.1); the most typical ones are haloperidol and bromperidol, which most frequently cause poisoning incidents among butyrophenones.

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  • Introduction: Propionic acid derivative analgesic-antipyretics ( Table 2.1) are non-steroidal and antiinflammatory drugs. As one of mechanisms of their pharmacological actions, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis can be mentioned. Although fatal cases due to propionic acid derivative analgesic-antipyretics are not many in the world, the incidence of poisoning (including survived cases) by this drug group is relatively high among therapeutic drugs in Japan [1].

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  • Introduction: The chemical warfare agents well known count only about 30 kinds of compounds, such as sarin, soman, tabun, VX, mustard gas, lewisite and others. When unknown toxic substances should be analyzed upon the occurrence of chemical terrorism, much more kinds of poisons and related compounds become the objects of analysis. In the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)a, 120 thousand compoundsb, including typical chemical warfare agents, their related compounds, precursors and decomposition products, are being listed to be controlled.

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  • Introduction: The plant Cannabis sativa L. has a long history for human being since about BC 2000 for its use as fiber material, food and folk medicine; cannabis (hemp, marijuana) means the whole plant itself and its dried products except for its stem and seeds. The word “hashish” is mainly used for the resin of the cannabis plant.

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  • Introduction: Bromisovalum (α-bromoisovalerylurea, bromovalerylurea, Brovarin) ( Figure 5.1) has long been being used as a hypnotics or sedative since many years ago. It is not only prescribed as an ethical drug, but also contained in some analgesic- antipyretics and hypnotics being sold as over-the-counter drugs. Because of the easiness of getting it, bromisovalum is one of the most important drugs in poisoning in Japan. The analysis of bromisovalum is being made by GC [1, 2], GC/MS [3], HPLC [4, 5] and LC/MS [6–8].

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  • Introduction: Non-selective phosphorus-containing amino acid-type herbicides (PAAHs) to be used for foliage exhibit lower toxicities than paraquat and are easily obtainable; they, thus, have come into wide use since 1980. The PAAHs include glufosinate (GLUF), glyphosate (GLYP) and bialaphos (BIAL). In Japan, there are many kinds of products containing GLUF and GLYP commercially available, and the number of suicidal cases using them is increasing [1].

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  • Introduction: Chloroform exerts a suppressing effect on the central nervous system. It had been used as a general anaesthetic since the 19th century, but it disappeared, because of its hepatotoxicity and arrhythmia-inducing effects. It is now being used for industrial purposes, such as a solvent, extracting reagent, refrigerant and chemical material. Chloroform poisoning can be seen in accidental, suicidal [1] and homicidal cases.

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  • Introduction: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) ( Figure 4.1) has been being used as an analgesic-antipyretic for a long time; it is contained in many of over-the-counter drugs. Although ASA is relatively safe, various poisoning symptoms, such as lowered consciousness levels, hypotension, pulmonary edema and convulsion, were reported upon ingestion of a large amount of this drug [1]. For analysis of ASA, methods by HPLC [2–19], GC [20–23], GC/MS [24] and capillary electrophoresis [25–27] were reported; among these methods, HPLC is most popular. ...

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  • Introduction: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas with the smell of putrid eggs; it can exist in both nonionic and ionic forms in aqueous solution. The ratio of the nonionic form to the total ionized one is influenced by concentration of hydrogen ion in the solution. Under acidic conditions, H2S does not ionized and evaporated from water; under alkaline conditions it is easily ionized and retained in the solution.

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  • Introduction: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, lysergide) is known as one of the most powerful hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. LSD was explosively abused in U.S.A. in the latter half of the 1960s. In Japan, the amount of seizure of LSD is much smaller than that of methamphetamine. However, in recent years, it has been increasing markedly; 3,500 tablets of LSD were seized in 1996, while 53,043 tablets in 2000 (about 15-fold increase), arousing a serious concern about the phenomenon. LSD is a compound chemically modified from ergot alkaloid produced by a bacterium Claviceps purpurea.

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