Pentazocine ( Fig. 5.1) is a non-narcotic analgesic, but shows mild dependence; there are many cases of pentazocine abuse especially for medical and co-medical workers. The drug is being regulated as a subclass compound of narcotics (DEA class: IV). Pentazocine in both antemortem and postmortem specimens is being analyzed by GC [1–4], HPLC [5–7] and GC/MS . In this chapter, a simple method for GC/MS analysis of pentazocine in human whole blood and urine is presented.
⊡ Figure 5.1
Structures of pentazocine and dextromethorphan (IS).
There are a number of compounds, such as morphine and codeine, which are classified into the opium alkaloids (opiates). They are being used as ethical drugs of narcotic analgesics and antitussives; 1 % powder of codeine or dihydrocodeine is commonly included in over-the-counter drugs of antitussives. Figure 3.1 shows metabolic pathways of morphine, heroin and codeine. Since morphine and codeine are finally excreted into urine in the conjugated forms with glucuronic acid [1–3], it is necessary to hydrolyze the conjugated forms of these compounds before GC/MS analysis.
Pharmacology has undergone major intellectual changes in the recent years and has become
increasingly important to all medical, dental and other health professionals. The graduate
students of dentistry may have to handle medical emergency during various dental
procedures on the dental chair. Besides this, dentists have to look into various drug
associated interactions. The broad goal of teaching pharmacology to undergraduate
students is to inculcate rational and scientific basis of therapeutics keeping in view the
dental curriculum and profession.
Complications Following Hematopoietic Cell Transplant
Early Direct Chemoradiotoxicities
The transplant preparative regimens commonly used cause a spectrum of acute toxicities that vary according to the specific regimen but frequently result in nausea, vomiting, and mild skin erythema (Fig. 108-1). Regimens that include high-dose cyclophosphamide can result in hemorrhagic cystitis, which can usually be prevented by bladder irrigation or with the sulfhydryl compound mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA); rarely, acute hemorrhagic carditis is seen.
The seventh edition of Introductory Clinical
Pharmacology reflects the ever-changing science of
pharmacology and the nurse’s responsibilities in administering
pharmacologic agents. All information has been
updated and revised according to the latest available
information to prepare nurses to meet the challenges of
safely administering medications. The text prepares the
nurse to meet the challenges of the 21st century by promoting
critical thinking and problem solving when