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Áp dụng phương pháp "học qua dự án" trong giảng dạy môn "giao tiếp liên văn hóa" bằng Tiếng Anh như ngôn ngữ trung gian

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Bài viết nghiên cứu phương pháp "Học qua dự án" trong giảng dạy môn "giao tiếp liên văn hóa" bằng Tiếng Anh như ngôn ngữ trung gian. Qua đó trình bày: Cơ sở lí thuyết về Học qua dự án; Tiếng Anh như là một ngôn ngữ quốc tế trong giao tiếp liên văn hóa ở Việt Nam; Báo cáo nghiên cứu.

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Nội dung Text: Áp dụng phương pháp "học qua dự án" trong giảng dạy môn "giao tiếp liên văn hóa" bằng Tiếng Anh như ngôn ngữ trung gian

40<br /> <br /> NG6N NGC & B61 S6NG<br /> <br /> s l l (243)-2016<br /> <br /> =<br /> <br /> INOOAI NGtJ VOl BAN NGO]<br /> <br /> A P D U N G PHirONG PHAP "HQC QUA D l / A N "<br /> TRONG GIANG DAY M 6 N "GIAO TIEP LIEN VAN HOA"<br /> BANG TIENG ANH NHU NGdN NGU* TRUNG GIAN<br /> APPLYING PROJECT-BASED LEARNING INTO TEACHING INTERCULTURAL<br /> COMMUNICATION BY MEANS OF ENGLISH AS A LINGUA FRANCA<br /> NG6HUTJHOANG<br /> (TS; Hgc vi|n Khoa hgc Xa hgi)<br /> D6THITHI5YVAN<br /> (ThS; Hgc vi^n Khoa hgc Xa hgi)<br /> Abstract: The paper is a research report of a language education method: Project-based<br /> learning in relation to intercvdtural communication training in English as an intemational<br /> language. It analyzes the three factors ofthe project, namely, people (learners); process and<br /> product in order to illustrate the project.<br /> Key words: Project-based learning; intercultural communication; English; lingua franca;<br /> learners, process, product.<br /> 1. BJt vin al<br /> ngdn ngir qu6c tl trong GTLVH d Vi$t Nam;<br /> Giao tiep lien van hda (GTLVH; (3) Bio cio nghiOn cdu.<br /> intercvdtural communication) da v4 dang trd<br /> 2. Cff sd li thuylt vl HQDA<br /> thinh mdn hgc bat bugc trong chuong tiinh<br /> Trii vdi phuong phip su p h ^ tmyen<br /> d4o t ^ chuyOn nganh tieng Anh nhieu nSm thing, phuong phip HQDA 14 mgt md hinh<br /> nay d cic trudng dai hgc d Vigt Nam d ci tl chde giii quyet nhihig vin dl xuit phit tir<br /> dinh do d^ hgc vi sau dai hgc. Vl y nghia vi yOu ciu thvrc tl eda ngudi hgc (Jones,<br /> mvic dieh, GTLVH da cd mgt thdi gian dii bi Rasmussen, & MofStt, 1997; Thomas,<br /> dinh ding vdi mon ngii dvmg hgc giao vin Mergendoller & Michaelson, 1999). Nd dugc<br /> hda (crosscultural pragmatics) hoae mdn dit djnh nghia nhu li mOt phuong phip hudng<br /> nude hgc (country studies) hay fliam chl li din lay ngudi hpc lim trung t4m, d dd nhiing<br /> van hda hpc (culture studies). Trong khi dd, cdng vigc/nhi$m vy cvi the dupe ngudi hgc<br /> vl bin chat, tuy cd mli quan hg nhung ein nhic vi dl xuit roi cdng nhau phSn ehia<br /> GTLVH khdng d4o t ^ kl nang dimg hgc nhigm vy vdi svr tn? giup v4 tu vin cua gido<br /> tieng Anh; nd eiing khdng day ki nang vin vien, Trong suit khda hgc (dvr in), ngudi hgc<br /> hda Anh hay Dat nude hgc Anh m4 hudng ein tvr thn kilm co hgi tiii nghiOm thvrc tl de<br /> den cung cap mOt kl nanjg dung filng Anh thu th^p Men thdc vi sau khda hpc, hp cd flil<br /> nhu ngdn ngii cOng cy dl phat Iriln nhOng sd dyng kiln thdc iy nhu mOt sin phim diu<br /> myc dich v4 ki ning khic trong boi canh gjao ra de ufng dyng vio cupe song,<br /> alp liOn van hda tien the gidi.<br /> Nhu v4y, HQDA 14 mpt qui trinh trong d6<br /> Sau khi xic dinh ban chit v4 chde ning nhilu hoat dpng dien ra cdng ldc vdi myc<br /> eda mOn hpc, chung tdi di co ging thn ra mgt dich lim cho kien thdc dupe tilp thu d trang<br /> hudng tilp c|n phu hpp, dd 14, phuong p h ^ thii "dOng" nhat de td dd, ngudi hgc cd the<br /> "Hgc qua Dvr in" (HQDA; Project-Based bien kiln thurc thinh nhihig dng dyng thvic tl.<br /> Leammg). Bii vilt niy tinh biy: (1) Co sd li Ndi cich khic, phuong phip HQDA li qui<br /> thuyet ve HQDA; (2) Tiing Anh nhu li mpt trinh t?o eo hOi toi da cho ngudi hpc khim<br /> <br /> So 1 (243)-2016<br /> <br /> NG6N NGC & Ddi S6NG<br /> <br /> phd mdn hoc thdn^ qua trdi nghi?m cfta chinh<br /> hp. Vi thi, van de nin lam gi, tgi sao lam.<br /> Idm nhu thi ndo Id do ngudi hpc dl xudt vd<br /> thyc hi^n. Ngudi dgy chi cd chftc nang tu vdn<br /> vd quan sat. Theo Carter vd Thomas (1986),<br /> vi$c thvrc hi$n m0t du dn thudng bao gdm:<br /> l ^ i a diem to chftc (thdng thudng Id ngodi<br /> ldp hpc); 2/D^ tnmg liSn nganh (tftc la phii<br /> hpp ding thdi nhilu mdn hgc); 3/Tinh tvr chft<br /> cfta ngudi hoc (Cho p h ^ ngudi hpc tvr dat ra<br /> myc tieu va hudng den m\ic ti€u d6 bdng qud<br /> trinh hpc thdng qua trai nghi$m "learning by<br /> experiencing").<br /> Theo chung tdi, chinh nhihig d§c dilm ndy<br /> chi ra II do vi sao thuat ngft "hpc" dupe sft<br /> dyng thay vi "day" theo ten cua phuong phdp<br /> HQDA. Vdi nhftng dac diem nhu the, ngudi<br /> hpc ddng vai trd chft d0ng, bupc phai trai<br /> nghi?m nhung dieu mdi bdng cdch t\t bdt tay<br /> vdo lam (learning by doing) thay vi chi don<br /> thudn tilp nh$n nhftng gj dupe gido vi6n dgy<br /> trfin ldp mOt cdch th\i dpng.<br /> 3. Tieng Anh Ih mgt ngdn ngii' tmng<br /> gian trong giao tiip lien van h6a d Vi^t<br /> Nam<br /> Theo quan sdt cfta chdng t6i, hi?n dang cd<br /> it nhdt hai van dl Idn liSn quan tdi v i ^ tiing<br /> Anh dupe sft dyng nhu mdt ngogi ngft d Vi^t<br /> Nam.<br /> Thft nhdt, khSng gilng nhu hifn tupng<br /> tieng Anh dupe sft dung nhu ngdn ngft thft<br /> hai d mpt so quIc gia, tieng Anh d Vi?t Nam<br /> dugc coi nhu mpt ngogi ngft vi thi ngudi Vi$t<br /> hpc tiing Anh cd rat it co hpi dl sft dyng nd<br /> hdn^ ngdy. Dieu ndy ddng nghia vdi m^t thvrc<br /> tl rdng hp thilu s\r tilp can vdi tieng Anh<br /> bdng nhihig dau vao sdn cd ben ngoai ldp hpc<br /> nhu cdc nude khdc. Kit qua Id, ngudi Vift<br /> khdng edm thdy svr cdn thilt hay itp \\tc phdi<br /> 1dm chu kl ndng giao tilp bdng tiing Anh<br /> ftong cupe sing. Tuong t\r, rdt nhilu chinh<br /> sdch gido dye ngogi ngft cdn bdt cap vd mpt<br /> s6 nguydn nhdn khdc khiln eho vipc hpc tiing<br /> Anh ciia ngudi Vift trd nen khd khdn vd<br /> khdng hifu qud.<br /> <br /> 41<br /> <br /> Thft hai, ngudi Vift cd dn tupng rdng,<br /> tiing Anh Id ngdn ngft chi sft dyng dl ndi vdi<br /> ngudi n6i tiing Anh bdn ngft md dgi difn id<br /> ngudi Anh. Trong khi d6, GTLVH ngdy nay<br /> bupc hp phdi dftng tieng Anh khong ehi vdi<br /> "ngudi Anh" ma cdn vdi hau hit mpi ngudi<br /> trSn thi gidi. Vi v$y ngudi Vift e6tibeddnh<br /> mdt ca hOi dftng tiing Anh trong GTLVH, d<br /> dd su thi hifn ndng lyc giao tilp khdng phdi<br /> d cho ehung ta khdng chi diing tieng Anh vdi<br /> ngudi Anh md cdn vdi hdng ti ngudi tren thi<br /> gidi. Vi vdy, tiing Anh nSn dupe coi la mOt<br /> ngdn ngft trung gian (hay ngdn ngft ehung,<br /> ngdn ngft quIc tl), tftc Id mpt loai ngdn ngtt<br /> nhu cdng cy giao tilp cua nhftng ngudi khdc<br /> tieng m^ di trong boi ednh thi gidi todn cdu<br /> hda.<br /> 4. NghiSn ciru<br /> 4.1. Cde bude nghien cthi<br /> 4.1.1. Thiitlppg}d thuyit<br /> Nghien cftu dd d$t ra mpt gid thuyet rdng:<br /> N g i ^ hpc khdng ed ddng lue hpc tiing Anh<br /> vl (1) Dau vdo sin cd dl sft dyng tiing Anh<br /> ngodi Idp hpc la qud thdp; (2) Quan dilm va<br /> phuong phdp dgy vd hpc tiing Anh chira phft<br /> hpp vdi dde tinh ehuyin dOng tftng ngay cfta<br /> ngdn ngft ndy nhu dd trinh bdy d myc 2. Tft<br /> dd, dl cai Ihifn tinh hlnh gidng dgy mdn<br /> GTLVH, cdn phdi cd cdch tilp can mdi. Dd<br /> chinh Id vifc sft dyng phuong phap HQDA,<br /> mpt gidi phdp thay the cdch hpc truyln thong<br /> thy dpng vd hudng din vifc ty tgo co hpi thyc<br /> hanh vd Ididm phd ciing nhu khai thdc khd<br /> nSng tilm tdng ciia ngudi hpc trong vifc thu<br /> nh|in kiln thftc deftngdyng thyc tl.<br /> 4.1.2. Hinh thdnh khda hpc thi diim<br /> Bk chftng minh gid thuylt trdn Id dftng,<br /> nhdm nghien cftu dupe ph6p hinh thdnh khda<br /> hpe "GTLVH", tiii dilm gidng dgy bdng<br /> phuong phdp HQDA cho hpc vidn eao hpc<br /> theo 1$ trinh ddo tao chuydn ngdnhtiengAnh,<br /> trudng Dgi hpe Ngogi ngft, DHQG Hd NOi.<br /> 4.2. Budng hudng phan tich nghiin cdru<br /> Vifc quan sdt vd phdntichdupe dya trdn 3<br /> ylu to: Con ngudi-Qud trinh-Sdn phdm.<br /> <br /> NG6NNGU'& Ddi S6NG<br /> 4.2.1. vi con ngudi<br /> Day la nhdn tl chinh ciia HQDA, noi each<br /> khdc la la hpe vien tiln hdnh dy an. Tft "con<br /> ngudi" d day, theo chung tdi, la mpt thu^t<br /> i ^ khoa hpc thi hifn quan diem coi ngudi<br /> hpe 1dm trung tdm trong hirdng tidp can<br /> phuong p h ^ mdi.<br /> s l lupng hpc vidn Iham gja vao dy dn nay<br /> Id 20 sinh vien cao hpc chuyen ngdnh Tiing<br /> Anh, dupe ehia thanh 5 nhdm, moi nhdm cd 4<br /> ngudi. Hp la gido vien d nhilu cdp giang day,<br /> i ^ d i phidn dich, cdng chftc,...Lpi ich tft<br /> vifc phong phft trong nghe nghifp cfta hpc<br /> vien la hp ed CO hdi khuyech tan kinh nghifm<br /> vd nhan thftc cfta minh da dgt d u ^ sang<br /> ngudi khde mOt cdch r0ng rai sau khi khda<br /> hpc kit thftc.<br /> Tuy nhidn, kiln thftc co bdn ve ngdn ngft<br /> vd gjao tilp cfta hpc vien rat da dgng va<br /> khdng ding deu bdi hp din tft nhflng trudng<br /> d?u hpc khdc nhau thupc nhflng vftng vd quIc<br /> gia khdc nhau. Mpt vai ngudi dupe day edch<br /> tilp c ^ CO bdn, mpt vai ngudi lai thich Id<br /> ndng giao tilp nhung khdng hung thu vdi<br /> kiln thftc da vdn hda, mOt vai ngudi qua tdn<br /> siing vdn h6a Anglo-Saxon trong khi do mft<br /> vdi ngudi thi ngupe lai,.. .Vi v^y, khi hp tham<br /> gia vdo dy dn, mpt so ngudi rat gioi ngft phap<br /> vd tft vyng, mft vdi ngudi ndi nSng kha trdi<br /> chdy nhung qud quan tam ren luyfn sao cho<br /> gilng vdi ngudi bdn ngft v.v. Tdt cd d ^ thft<br /> ndy ciia hpc vien dan den m$t thyc tl Id hp<br /> g|ip khd khdn trong nhan thftc vl tiing Anh<br /> trong GTLVH.<br /> Ngudi nghidn cftu, eung la giang vidn cfta<br /> khda hpc, tat nhidn cung ndm trong tidu chi<br /> "con ngudi" nhui^ chi ddng la ngudi hS t^,<br /> ghi nhan, giup dd, dfng vien,...hem Id ngirdi<br /> cung cdp kiln thftc nhu la gjdng vien theo<br /> kieu mau truyen thli^. Nhifm vy cua ngudi<br /> nghien cuu d ddy khdng kdm phdn quan trpi^<br /> ^d sy d|nh hudng, sy tu vdn edn dftng hudng,<br /> v6 tu vd quan trpng Id sy quan sat vd ghi ehdp<br /> qud trinh chuydn dpt^ cfta dy an nhdm cd<br /> nhftng bdo cdo chinh xde vl sau.<br /> <br /> S6 1 (243)-2016<br /> <br /> 4.2.2. Vi qud trinh<br /> 4.2.2.1. Cde budc thyv hipn<br /> 4 bude quan trpng ciia khda hpc dy dn dd<br /> dupe thyc hifn la: 1/Td chftc bdi t|p Idn gIm<br /> gidi thifu kiln thftc ve mdn giao thoa vdn<br /> hda, ehia nhdm vd chft dl dya vdo sy ydu<br /> thich vd quan tdm cfta hpc vien, phdn cdng<br /> nhifm vy cho thanh vidn trong m5i nhdm...;<br /> 2/Thu thap thdng tin tft nhieu nguIn khdc<br /> nhau va lya chpn edc thdng tin phft hpp;<br /> 3/Phdn tich cdc dft lifu thdng tin; 4/Thuylt<br /> trinh vd thdo Iu|n bdn bdo eao culi cftng.<br /> 4.2.2.2. Chi tiit cdc hogt dpng<br /> Khda hpc cd 45 gid vd dupe ehia thdnh 2<br /> phdn. Phdn ddu tidn la gidi thifu nhChig tien<br /> dd eo bdn ciia khda hpc bao gIm 10 gid hpc<br /> keo dai trong 3 tudn. Trong thdi gian dd, gido<br /> vien (ngudi nghien eiiu) cftng vdi hpc vidn s6<br /> trao dii nhihig djnh nghia ca bdn vl giao tilp,<br /> vdn hda, GTLVH, todn edu hda, d^c dilm ciia<br /> tiing Anb trong thdi todn cdu hda ciia thi<br /> gidi,...Sau dd, hpc vidn sS chpn chft dl. Vifc<br /> chpn chft de dvra vdo nhihig tieu chi sau: (a)<br /> Hudng din co hpi dl tim hieu, khdm phd vd<br /> phdn tich vl thi gidi. (b) Gdn giii vdi sy ySu<br /> thich, hftng thft cua hpc hpc vien, vd d$e bift<br /> la nhihig van de sdt sudn hdng ngdy cfta hp;<br /> (c) Chu de cd the mang Igi kinh nghifm thyc<br /> tl cho sinh vidn ngay sau khi kit thftc khda<br /> hpc (d) Tiing Anh vd tiing Vift Id phuong<br /> tifn chft ylu dk giao tilp h o ^ dl khai thdc<br /> thdng tin.<br /> <br /> Sau khi tiido lu^n, hpc vidn dd quylt ( ^<br /> chpn chft dl cho dy dn Ida* Nhpn thdc cOa<br /> ngudi Vipt Nam vi gid tri vdn hda trong vi$<br /> bdo v$ mdi trudng so sdnh vdi ngudi ddn c<br /> nude khdc tren thi gidi. Dya vdo cym t&<br /> "ngudi Vift Nam", mSi nhdm ehpn mft<br /> nhdm, cOng ding, qu|n ho$c thdnh phi cy<br /> thi,.. .dl dilu tra khdo sdt. Vdi cymtir"ngirdi<br /> dan tren thi gidi", dl so sdnh, mSi nhdm cd<br /> thi chpn bdt Id quIc gja, khu vyc ndo hp<br /> muon, d$c bift Id cdc nude chdu A. Culi<br /> <br /> s l 1 (243)-2016<br /> <br /> N G 6 N NGf & Ddi S6NG<br /> <br /> cftng, cd 4 chft de thu$c dy dn nhd phyc vy<br /> dy an Idn cdn dupe gidi quylt la:<br /> (1) Y thuc bdo vp moi trudng cua sinh<br /> vien Dgi hpc Qudc gia Ha Npi, so sdnh vdi<br /> sinh viin Afp.- Bdi hgc rut ra tir quan sdt.<br /> (2) Nhiing cd sdc vdn hoa eda ngudi<br /> phirang Tdy khi song trong moi trudng 6<br /> nhiem do ngudi Vipt Nam tgo ra: Mpt vdi<br /> ggiy di cdi thipn.<br /> (3) Tgi sao Sing-ga-po dugc eho Id mgt<br /> qudc ddo sgeh se: Bdi hgc cho Vipt Nam tit<br /> nhgn thuc bdo vp mdi trudng cua ngudi<br /> Sing-ga-po.<br /> (4) Thdm hpa 6 nhiim tiing dn: lam thi<br /> ndo di ndng eao nhgn thue vi vipe gidm bdt<br /> Igm dyng tieng cdi xe cOa ngudi Vipt Nam<br /> khi tham gia giao thong.<br /> Phdn thft hai Id qud trinh thiic hifn gIm<br /> 35 gid keo ddi trong 12 tudn. Trong thdi gian<br /> ndy, mSi thanh vien trong nhdm cd 7 tudn<br /> thyc hifn dy an ngodi ldp hpc dl thyc hifn<br /> budc 2. Sau do thyc hifn bude 3. Tft tudn 8<br /> din tudn II, budc 4 dupe thye hifn. Hpc<br /> vien s6 thuylt trinh vd thdo ludn bdn bdo cao<br /> md hp da thyc hifn trong 7 tudn trudc dd.<br /> Tudn culi cftng ddnh cho vifc ddnh gid.<br /> 4.2.3. Vi sdn phdm<br /> Bang *hanh dpng" de tiep cgn vdn de,<br /> trong 15 tudn thyc hanh, sinh vidn khdng chi<br /> hpc dupe nhthig kiln thirc vd ylu t l quan<br /> trpng cfta ehuong trinh hpe truydn thing ydu<br /> cdu md edn hpc them nhilu tft nhftng gj hp<br /> trdi nghifm trong qud trinh thye hifn dy an<br /> ngodi ldp hpc. Hpc vien ed thi quan sat<br /> thdng tin dgt dupe vd van dl cfta m$t qudc<br /> gia vd the gid trong qu5 trinh todn cau hda,<br /> tft dd, c6 nhihig suy nghi vd gpi y each thftc<br /> gjdi quylt vdn dd.<br /> 4.2.31. KT ndng GTLVH<br /> Hpc vien thu dupe kiln thftc tft gia tri van<br /> hda va hanh dOng hudng tdi vifc bdo vf mdi<br /> trudng giu^ cdc nin vdn hda, hiiu vl nhflng<br /> vdn de dira vdo nhfhig mli tuong lidn gifta<br /> cde nin vdn hda vd cd mft cdch bilu sdu sde<br /> ve boi canh todn cdu: mpi hdnh dfng cfta eon<br /> <br /> 43<br /> <br /> ngudi cd tac dpng va dnh hudng din nhau.<br /> Nhihig hdnh vi vd boat dfng cfta con ngudi<br /> khdng chi cdn dupe bdo vf md cung cdn<br /> phdn tich ddnh gid dl loai bd nlu nhu nd<br /> mang lgi nhihig dnh hudng khdng tot tdi<br /> cupe song cfta cpng ding vd khdng phft hpp<br /> vdi vdn minh rihdn logi. Do dd, hpc vien<br /> hiiu rdng nhChig hdnh vi xd hOi md ngudi<br /> Vift Nam tdc dpng tdi mdi tnrdng khdng<br /> nhihig cdn dupe chl ra Id khdng dung md cdn<br /> can dupe chinh siia bo^c lo?i bd dya theo<br /> cdch thftc md ddt nude Sing-ga-po da tiiyc<br /> hifn (vd cd thi ndi la) dd rdt thdnh edng.<br /> Mdt dilu quan trpng vd rdt cd ^ nghia Id<br /> dy an dS eho hpc vien nh$n thfte dupe rdng<br /> nhftng ^ can dupe tuydn truyln khdng ehi<br /> trong m0t nhdm nhd md cdn tdi mpi nhan td<br /> trong xd hpi. Tft dd, hp c6 gdng dp dyn^<br /> nhChig gj hpe dupe tft khda hpe eho dat<br /> nude, noi minh sinh song. Hon thi nfla, ho<br /> bilu dupe nhChig khdi nifm vl vdn hda, vdn<br /> minh cd ^ nghia gdn gfli vdi nhau nhung<br /> cung khdc nhau nhilu vl nhieu m$t. Vi dy,<br /> khi quan sat cdch nhftng ngirdi tft nhftng ddt<br /> nude khdc nhau tham gia giao thdng qua<br /> nhilu kdnh k h ^ nhau (phim dnh, internet,<br /> thu thap y kien cua chinh ngudi nude<br /> ngodi,...), hpc vien cd thi phdt hifn ra cdch<br /> ngudi Vift sft dyng cdi xe Id mpt hanh vi<br /> vdn hda tieu cyc, phuong hai din vdn minh<br /> hifn dgi, gay ra nhilu dnh hudng khdng tit<br /> tdi cpng ddng va bp m$t vdn hda cua dan<br /> tpc. Vd vdn hda trong trudng hpp nay ciia<br /> ngudi Vift Nam di ngupe lgi vdi khdi nifm<br /> 'Vdn minh".<br /> Tft nhdn thfte mdi md tren, hpc vidn nhgy<br /> ben hon vdi nhflng vdn de Udn quan tdi sy<br /> phd hfty mdi tnrdng, va suy nghl vl cdch logi<br /> bd nd dk bdo vf vd phdt tridn nai hp dang<br /> s6ng va hpc t ^ . Ngudi Phdp ed edu: "Cd<br /> udc muon, b^n dd cd mpt nita cfta thdnh<br /> edng". Can hdi dat ra la khi md hpc vidn da<br /> ed **iidc muon", hp ed the 1dm the ndo de dgt<br /> dupe nira cdn Igi?^ Cdu tra ldi Id cdn hdnh<br /> dOng nhieu hem bdng cdch ndng cao nhgn<br /> <br /> 44<br /> <br /> NG6N NGtr & D6I S6NG<br /> <br /> thftc vl nS lyc hpp tdc cua nhihig ngudi song<br /> xung quanh hp. Cdng cd nhieu ngudiftnghp,<br /> mdi trudng sd dupe cai thif n tit hem. Nhflng<br /> vdn dl ndy khdng thi thilu sy phdn tich vd<br /> hpe hdi Idii cp xdt vdi nhihig nen vdn hda<br /> khdc.<br /> 4.2.3.2. KT ndng tiing Anh<br /> Vd Id ndng thue hdnh tieng Anh, dac bift<br /> Id Id ndng nghe ndi dd cd nhflng tiln bp rd<br /> rft V! hp cd dpng ca vd cam thdy thft vj khi<br /> tim din de tiep xftc vdi nguin nude ngodi<br /> ngay tai nude ndnh. Nhu da bilt, hpc vidn<br /> khdng ed nhilu co h0i ty nhien dl tham gia<br /> vdo nbihig hogt dfng giao tilp thyc te nen<br /> nhftng CO hfi ty tao trong phgm vi dy an da<br /> giftp hp cai thifn kha ndng giao tilp, ddc bift<br /> Id kl ndng dpc vilt dupe cai thifn rat nhieu<br /> nhd qua trinh chudn bi cho thdo luan vd<br /> thuyet trinh ve edeh vdn dl ma hp phai bdo<br /> cdo.<br /> Mdt dilu d$c bift ia hpc vien bdt ddu hinh<br /> thdnh thdm nhilu nhihig nhgn thftc mdi vl<br /> vifc sft dyng tiing Anh. Dd Id nhan thftc vl<br /> tiing Anb da vd dang dupe quIc tl hda trong<br /> bli canh the gidi Id ngdi Idng todn cdu<br /> (global village). Nhd cd sy kit noi vdi nhieu<br /> ngudi thufc nhilu quIc gia trong dy an, hpe<br /> vidn khdm phd ra rdng tieng Anh md hp sft<br /> dyng vd tilp nh§n tft ngudi ndi la de bilu vd<br /> dl hda hpp ban la "tiing Anh giong nhu<br /> ngudi Anb". Tft dd, hp ty tm hon de giao<br /> tilp. Nhan thftc nay ngdy edng ro rdng hon<br /> vd hinh thdnh mpt quan dilm ma nhu<br /> Jenkins (2003) da phdt bilu, vifc sft dyng<br /> tiing Anh trong the gidi ngdy nay gifta cdc<br /> ddn tpc vdi nhau ehi Id "khdc bift" chft<br /> khdng phdi Id sy "dung sai". KI ndng diln<br /> ngdn cfta phdn Idn hpc vidn eung phdt triin<br /> khdng chi tft nhihig cdu don chudn mvrc md<br /> cdn Id sy kit nii y tudng hinh thanh cd f<br /> ngbia vdn bdn.<br /> 4.2.3.3. KT ndng nghien cdu.<br /> Hpc vien nSng cao dupe hogt dfng hpe<br /> thudt thdng qua vifc khdm phd va khai thdc<br /> ngudn tdi lifu md hp tilp cgn, phdt triin vd<br /> <br /> So 1 (243)-2D16<br /> <br /> sft dyng kiln thftc lien nganh (ngon ngft, vdn<br /> hda, nhdn chiing hpc, vdn hda, xa hfi<br /> hpc,...) hon rdt nhilu so vdi trudc. Hp Wnh<br /> thdnh nhflng chu trinh nghidn cftu vdi kinh<br /> nghifm: thvrc hifn dy dn ngodi ldp hpe bdng<br /> cdch quan sdt sy vifc vd thu th§p dft lifu vd<br /> trinh bdy nhfhig ^ hp dd 1dm vd thilt kl mft<br /> chuoi cdc cdu hdi phy dl thdo lu§n vd hanh<br /> ludn khi trd lgi ldp hpe. Thdm vdo dd, sinh<br /> vidn bdt ddu 1dm quen vdi vide thu th?ip<br /> nhihig thong tin bl ich va phft hpp vl van de<br /> mdi trudng cfta quIc gia vd toan edu tir<br /> nhihig nguon thdng tin da dgng (phdng vk<br /> ngudi nude ngoai cd m^t tgi Vift Nam, phim<br /> truyfn, phim tdi lifu, internet,...).<br /> 4.2.3.4. KTndng lam vipe nhdm<br /> Gan nhu tdt cd hpc vidn, khdng kl den<br /> ndng lyc ngdn ngft, dd phdt triin dupe ki<br /> ndng hpp tdc ddng kl. Sau khi thyc hifn d\r<br /> dn, hp da nhgn ra rdng Id mft thdnh viSn<br /> trong mpt nhdm diu ed mft nghia vy nhdt<br /> dinh va nhgn thftc. "Tdi Id mft phdn ciia hf<br /> thing, la mdt xich quan trpng ciia ehu5i ho^t<br /> dfng. NIU mdt xich ay bi phd v5, todn bf hf<br /> thing cung s5 syp do". Phdn Idn hpc viSn<br /> deu ed the nang cao ki ndng hpp tdc bdng<br /> vifc ed trdeh nhifm vdi nhifm vy dupe giao,<br /> tdn trpng ngudi khdc, tuan thft nhftng quy<br /> dinh vd nghia vy trong nhdm. Tft dd hp biet<br /> dupe cdch gidi quylt nhflng y kiln mdu<br /> thuan trong nhdm.<br /> 5. Kit lu^n<br /> Nhu da ndi tren, phuong phdp HQDA de<br /> ra mpt cdch dgy "mang tinh thyc ngjiif ra"<br /> hoae ndi cdch khdc la hudng den phuong<br /> phdp su phgm "hpc qua trdi nghifm"<br /> (learning by eJtperiencing/doing) bao gIm<br /> cdc lpi ich Id: 1/Rdn luyfn khd ndng ty dinh<br /> hudng, ty nghidn cftu cho ngudi hpc; 2/Thiic<br /> ddy 1dm vifc, hpp tdc, kl ndng gjao tiep<br /> tiong hodn ednh GTLVH; 3/Tgo co hpi cho<br /> ngudi hpe tilp c|to vk trinh bdy nhflng trdi<br /> nghifm vd ^ tudi^ mdi; 4/Phdt triin kl ndng<br /> hpp tac nhdm, tu duy phe phdn, gidi quyet<br /> vdn de; 5/Cung cap cho ngudi hpc ki ndng<br /> <br />
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