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Bài giảng Công nghệ chuyển hóa than: Phần 8 (1) - Văn Đình Sơn Thọ

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Công nghệ hoá khí than là công nghệ sản xuất khí đốt, khi oxy hoá khối hữu cơ trong than không hoàn toàn. Trong chương này chúng ta sẽ cùng tìm hiểu chi tiết về công nghệ khí hóa than, mời các bạn cùng tham khảo.

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Nội dung Text: Bài giảng Công nghệ chuyển hóa than: Phần 8 (1) - Văn Đình Sơn Thọ

  1. CÔNG NGHỆ KHÍ HÓA THAN PGS.TS. Văn Đình Sơn Thọ Bộ môn Công nghệ hữu cơ – hóa dầu Khoa Công nghệ Hóa học Đại học Bách Khoa Hà Nội Email : thovds-petrochem@mail.hut.edu.vn thovds@yahoo.com Tel : 097.360.4372
  2. Key Technology : Gasification Gasifier Gas Gasification with Oxygen Composition C + 1/2 O2 CO (Vol %) Combustion with Oxygen H2 25 - 30 Feedstock C + O2 CO2 CO 30 - 60 CO2 5 - 15 C, H, O, N, S, Cl, Ash Gasification with Carbon Dioxide H2O 2 - 30 C + CO2 2CO CH4 0-5 Gasification with Steam H2S 0.2 - 1 Oxygen C + H2O CO + H2 COS 0 - 0.1 N2 0.5 - 4 Gasification with Hydrogen Ar 0.2 - 1 C + 2H2 CH4 NH3 + HCN 0 -0.3 Water-Gas Shift Ash/Slag/PM Steam CO + H2O H2 + CO2 Heating value Methanation 250 Btu/scf CO + 3H2 CH4 + H2O (1/4 of natural gas)
  3. What is Gasification Combustion Gasification 1. Oxidant : Air Carbon 1. Oxidant : O2 ·Excess O2 Ash ·Excess fuel Sulfur 2. Product : CO2, H2O 2. Product : CO, H2 Nitrogen Ash Hydrogen Slag 3 Pollutant : SOx, NOx Water 3 Pollutant : H2S, NH3 4. Application 4. Application ·Power plant (Steam turbine) · Power plant (Combined cycle) · Chemical production : Methanol, Dimethyl Ether · Fuel production : Liquid Fuel : Substitute Natural Gas : Hydrogen
  4. Combustion & Gasification Products Complete combustion condition CH4 H2S Gasification Zone SO2 Combustion Zone 100% 90% O2 H2O 80% H2 Mole fraction (%) 70% 60% 50% C 40% CO2 30% CO 20% 10% 0% 0.1 0.7 1.3 1.9 2.5 3.1 O2/Coal (Moisture ash free basis)
  5. The Case of Coal  Low cost  Abundant (domestic) resources  Energy security  Clean coal is not an oxymoron  High and volatile crude oil, natural gas prices
  6. How has Gasification been Used?  A New but old technology  Making “town gas” from coal  First practical use of town gas in modern times was for street lighting in America and Europe  The first public street lighting with gas took place in Pall Mall, London on January 28, 1807  Baltimore, Maryland began the first commercial gas lighting of residences, streets, and businesses in 1816  Manufactured gas plants – prior to discovery and use of natural gas
  7. How has Gasification been Used?  Used during World War II to convert coal into transportation fuels (Fischer – Tropsch) Used extensively in the last 50+ years to convert coal and heavy oil into hydrogen – for the production of ammonia/urea fertilizer Chemical industry (1960’s) Refinery industry (1980’s) Global power industry (Today)
  8. Syngas Compositions H2 CO C H4 CO2 N2 70 60 Mole fraction (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 g h g t ry ry as g in g in K RW p or u rry d u r ry u r ry d y g g s s l e s l s l o dr s la s la l u id ran le n gl o o tw g g g F t g s i t w t w d o v in v in v in l u id si n e d e d e d i ne ed in a M Mo Mo F in t ra ra in ra in nt r a t t E tr En En En En
  9. GE Energy (formerly Texaco process)  Coal-water slurry feed  Oxygen-blown  Refractory-lined gasifier  Good for bituminous coal, pet coke, or blends of pet coke with low-rank coals  GE Energy provides gasification technology  GE Power provides combined cycle plant  EPC alliance with Bechtel for guarantees on total IGCC plant
  10. ConocoPhillips (E-Gas process) Coal-water slurry feed Oxygen-blown Refractory-lined gasifier Good for a wide range of coals, from pet coke to PRB, and blends ConocoPhillips provides gasification technology and process guarantee Project specific EPC and combined cycle supplier alliances
  11. Shell Dry feed (coal is crushed and dried and then fed into gasifier) Oxygen-blown Waterwall in gasifier Good for wide variety of feedstocks, from pet coke to PRB Shell provides gasification technology Alliance with Black & Veatch and Uhde for engineering
  12. How has Gasification been Used?
  13. How has Gasification been Used?  Methanol : CO+2H2 → CH3OH  Combustion : CO + H2 + O2 → CO2 + H2O (for Methanol) (for Fuel)  Dimethyl Ether : 3CO + 3H2 → CH3OCH3+CO2  Water Gas Shift : CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 (for Demethyl-Ether) (for hydrogen and CO2 recovery)  Fischer-Tropsch : nCO + 2nH2 → (-CH2-)n + nH2O  Methanation : CO + 3H2 → CH4 + H2O (for diesel and naphtha) (for Substitute Natural Gas) Syngas IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) IGFC (Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell) CO2 H2 Coal Gasification CO, H2 Shift reaction Methanation Substitute Natural Gas Diesel fuel Synthesis DME Methanol
  14. Cumulative Worldwide Gasification Capacity and Growth
  15. Gasification by Primary Feedstock
  16. Gasification by Product
  17. Schematic of a Generic IGCC Power Plant Other Chemical Moisture Products Combustion Combustibles Chamber Heat Recovery Ash Synthesis gas Steam Generator Air Exhaust Oxygen (CO, H2) Stack Generator Coal Water Electricity Compressor Steam Water Activated Charcoal Bed Generator Condenser Heated Sulfur Electricity Water Removal Cooling Water Electricity Sulfur Acid Particulate Removal Pure Sulfur Gasifier Slag Solids & Co-Products
  18. Operating IGCC Projects
  19. Conventional Coal Power Plant
  20. IGCC Efficiency Efficiency ↑ CO2/kwh ↓
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