Chapter 047. Hypercalcemia and Hypocalcemia (Part 2)

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Chapter 047. Hypercalcemia and Hypocalcemia (Part 2)

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Table 47-1 Causes of Hypercalcemia Excessive PTH production Primary hyperparathyroidism (adenoma, hyperplasia, rarely carcinoma) Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (long-term stimulation of PTH secretion in renal insufficiency) Ectopic PTH secretion (very rare) Inactivating mutations in the CaSR (FHH) Alterations in CaSR function (lithium therapy) Hypercalcemia of malignancy Overproduction of PTHrP (many solid tumors) Lytic skeletal metastases (breast, myeloma) Excessive 1,25(OH)2D production Granulomatous diseases (sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, silicosis) Lymphomas Vitamin D intoxication Primary increase in bone resorption Hyperthyroidism Immobilization Excessive calcium intake Milk-alkali syndrome Total parenteral nutrition Other causes Endocrine disorders (adrenal insufficiency, pheochromocytoma, VIPoma) Medications (thiazides, vitamin A, antiestrogens) ...

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  1. Chapter 047. Hypercalcemia and Hypocalcemia (Part 2) Table 47-1 Causes of Hypercalcemia Excessive PTH production Primary hyperparathyroidism (adenoma, hyperplasia, rarely carcinoma) Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (long-term stimulation of PTH secretion in renal insufficiency) Ectopic PTH secretion (very rare)
  2. Inactivating mutations in the CaSR (FHH) Alterations in CaSR function (lithium therapy) Hypercalcemia of malignancy Overproduction of PTHrP (many solid tumors) Lytic skeletal metastases (breast, myeloma) Excessive 1,25(OH)2D production Granulomatous diseases (sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, silicosis) Lymphomas Vitamin D intoxication Primary increase in bone resorption
  3. Hyperthyroidism Immobilization Excessive calcium intake Milk-alkali syndrome Total parenteral nutrition Other causes Endocrine disorders (adrenal insufficiency, pheochromocytoma, VIPoma) Medications (thiazides, vitamin A, antiestrogens) Note: CaSR, calcium sensor receptor; FHH, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia; PTH, parathyroid hormone; PTHrP, PTH-related peptide. Clinical Manifestations
  4. Mild hypercalcemia (up to 11–11.5 mg/dL) is usually asymptomatic and recognized only on routine calcium measurements. Some patients may complain of vague neuropsychiatric symptoms, including trouble concentrating, personality changes, or depression. Other presenting symptoms may include peptic ulcer disease or nephrolithiasis, and fracture risk may be increased. More severe hypercalcemia (>12–13 mg/dL), particularly if it develops acutely, may result in lethargy, stupor, or coma, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, anorexia, constipation, or pancreatitis). Hypercalcemia decreases renal concentrating ability, which may cause polyuria and polydipsia. With long-standing hyperparathyroidism, patients may present with bone pain or pathologic fractures. Finally, hypercalcemia can result in significant electrocardiographic changes, including bradycardia, AV block, and short QT interval; changes in serum calcium can be monitored by following the QT interval (Fig. 221-16). Diagnostic Approach The first step in the diagnostic evaluation of hyper- or hypocalcemia is to ensure that the alteration in serum calcium levels is not due to abnormal albumin concentrations. About 50% of total calcium is ionized, and the rest is bound principally to albumin. Although direct measurements of ionized calcium are possible, they are easily influenced by collection methods and other artifacts; thus, it is generally preferable to measure total calcium and albumin to "correct" the serum calcium. When serum albumin concentrations are reduced, a corrected
  5. calcium concentration is calculated by adding 0.2 mM (0.8 mg/dL) to the total calcium level for every decrement in serum albumin of 1.0 g/dL below the reference value of 4.1 g/dL for albumin, and conversely for elevations in serum albumin.

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