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Chapter 070. Nutritional Requirements and Dietary Assessment (Part 3)

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Chapter 070. Nutritional Requirements and Dietary Assessment (Part 3)

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Note: This table presents recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) in bold type and adequate intakes (AIs) in ordinary type. RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all individuals (97 to 98%) in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by...

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  1. Chapter 070. Nutritional Requirements and Dietary Assessment (Part 3) Note: This table presents recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) in bold type and adequate intakes (AIs) in ordinary type. RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all individuals (97 to 98%) in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. a As retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 µg retinol, 12 µg β- carotene, 24 µg α-carotene, or 24 µg β-cryptoxanthin. To calculate RAEs from retinol equivalents (REs) of provitamin A carotenoids in foods, divide the REs by
  2. 2. For preformed vitamin A in foods or supplements and for provitamin A carotenoids in supplements, 1 RE = 1 RAE. b As calciferol. 1 µg calciferol = 40 IU vitamin D. c In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight. d As α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α- tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements. e As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE). f As dietary folate equivalents (DFEs). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. g Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.
  3. h Because 10 to 30% of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those >50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12. i In view of evidence linking inadequate folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet. j It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 µg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube. Source: Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine—National Academy of Sciences Dietary Reference Intakes, 2000, 2002, reprinted with permission. Courtesy of the National Academy Press, Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu Table 70-2 Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals—Elements C M M M P
  4. ife- alciu hromi oppe luori odin ron, agnesi angan olybde hosph eleni inc, Stage m, um, r, de, e, mg/ um, ese, num, orus um, mg/ Grou mg/d µg/d µg/d mg/d µg/d d mg/d mg/d µg/d mg/d µg/d d p nfants 0 3 0 2 1 0–6 10 .2 00 .01 10 .27 0 .003 00 5 mo 5 7 0 3 2 7–12 70 .5 20 .5 30 1 5 .6 75 0 mo hildre n 1 8 1 1 4
  5. 1–3 y 00 1 40 .7 0 0 .2 7 60 0 1 1 1 2 5 4–8 y 00 5 40 0 0 30 .5 2 00 0 ales 2 2 1 3 1 9–13 300 5 00 20 40 .9 4 250 0 y 3 4 2 4 1 14– 300 5 90 50 1 10 .2 3 250 5 1 18 y 3 4 2 4 7 19– 000 5 00 50 00 .3 5 00 5 1 30 y 3 4 2 4 7
  6. 31– 000 5 00 50 20 .3 5 00 5 1 50 y 3 4 2 4 7 51– 200 0 00 50 20 .3 5 00 5 1 70 y 3 4 2 4 7 >70 y 200 0 00 50 20 .3 5 00 5 1 emale s 2 2 1 3 1 9–13 300 1 00 20 40 .6 4 250 0 y 2 3 1 4 1 14– 300 4 90 50 5 60 .6 3 250 5 18 y
  7. 2 3 1 4 7 19– 000 5 00 50 8 10 .8 5 00 5 30 y 2 3 1 4 7 31– 000 5 00 50 8 20 .8 5 00 5 50 y 2 3 1 4 7 51– 200 0 00 50 20 .8 5 00 5 70 y 2 3 1 4 7 >70 y 200 0 00 50 20 .8 5 00 5 regna ncy 2 4 2 5 1
  8. ≤18 y 300 9 000 20 7 00 .0 0 250 0 2 3 3 2 5 7 19– 000 0 000 20 7 50 .0 0 00 0 1 30 y 3 3 2 5 7 31– 000 0 000 20 7 60 .0 0 00 0 1 50 y actati on 4 3 2 5 1 ≤18 y 300 4 300 90 0 60 .6 0 250 0 3 4 3 2 5 7 19– 000 5 300 90 10 .6 0 00 0 2 30 y
  9. 4 3 2 5 7 31– 000 5 300 90 20 .6 0 00 0 2 50 y Note: This table presents recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) in bold type and adequate intakes (AIs) in ordinary type. RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all individuals (97 to 98%) in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. Source: Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine—National Academy of Sciences Dietary Reference Intakes, 2000, 2002, reprinted with permission. Courtesy of the National Academy Press, Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu
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