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Ngữ pháp và viết tiếng Anh với 16 bài học cách dùng: Phần 1

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Tài liệu 16 bài học Cách dùng ngữ pháp và viết tiếng Anh: Phần 1 do Thanh Thảo, Thanh Hoa biên soạn sau đây sẽ cung cấp cho các bạn những kiến thức về cách sử dụng danh từ, động từ, các đại từ, các từ bổ nghĩa, giới từ, liên từ và thán từ, cụm từ, mệnh đề, câu, các lỗi thường gặp, dấu chấm, dấu hỏi và dấu trong tiếng Anh.

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Nội dung Text: Ngữ pháp và viết tiếng Anh với 16 bài học cách dùng: Phần 1

  1. C K .0000043249 Ccich dCing NgCr ph&p aviet TIENG ANH '1GUYEN >C LI$U NHA XUAT BAN HONG DLTC ____ A
  2. 16 BAI HOC CACH DUNG NGUfPHAP VA VIET TIENG ANH
  3. TH ANH THAO - THANH HOA 16BAI HOC CACH DUNG NGUf PHAP VA VIET TIENG ANH N H A X U A T B A N H O N G D lfC
  4. ICH NOt M U De hoc tieng Anh co hieu qua, viec ndm vang dupe ca ch dung tu, cau true, dqt cau 1a dieu ma bat ky nguoi hoc tieng Anh nao cung can dat den. Xuat phat tu nhu cau do, chung toi bien soan cuon "16 bai hoc ca ch dung ngu phap va viet tieng Anh '. Noi dung chu yeu cua cuon sach 1a tong ket c a c van de ngu phap co Pan trong tieng Anh lien quan den Danh tu, Dong tu, c a c dai tu, c a c tu Po nghla, gioi tu, lien tu va than tu... danh cho Pan doc co nhu cau cung co', ren luyen ngu phap va trau doi ky nang viet tieng Anh. Sach dupe trinh Pay hop ly, duoc phan chia theo tung bai, vai tung hien tuong, cau true ngu phap ro rang, d i hieu, d§ hoc, giup nguoi hoc nhanh chOng cung co kien thuc ngu phap cua minh. Sau moi hien tuong, cau true ngu phap 1a phan Pai tap trdc nghiem dudi dang Hoi Dap giup nguoi hoc hieu sau hon ve c a c van de ngu phap. De dung sach that hieu qua, nguoi hoc nen luyen tap ky tung phan mot, ndm chdc ly thuyet ket hop voi thuc hanh. C a c Pan co the khOng can phai tra cuu c a c van de ngu phap theo thu tu tu dau
  5. sach den cuoi sach. Ma co the tap trj^g * ~ eu ky nhung phan ma minh con chua n a r sau khi da thong hieu roi thi co the chuyen q^a o^a"' -
  6. 16 ba i hpc cdch d u n g n g iip h a p va viet T ien g An h 7 B ail Danh tcir Noi dung • X a c djnh danh tu" rieng va gerund (danh d o n g tu") • Suf dung danh tif tap hop de xac djnh c a c nh o m • T im hieu danh tuf so it va so nhieu • SOf du ng danh tOf sci hufu de bieu thj quyen s6 hufu • L a m ch o danh tif va d o n g tuf hoa hop
  7. 8 16 bai h oc cach d u n g ngtf phcip va viet T ie n g An h anh tu- la mot tu- loai neu ten ngudi, noi chon D hoac su- vat. Nhieu loai danh tu" khac nhau duoc dung trong ngon nguf Anh. M ot so danh tuf de chi ngUdi, noi chon hoac su" kien va mot so bieu thi cac nhom va cac tap hop. M ot so danh td tham chi khong phai la danh tu1; chung la cac dong td hanh dong giong nhu danh td trong cau. Cac danh td co the la so it, de cap den mot su vat. hoac so nhieu, de cap den nhieu hon mot vat. Cac danh tu cung co the mang tinh sd hufu: cac danh tu sd hufu chi ra quyen sd hufu hoac mot moi quan he gan gui. Bat ke loai nao, danh td luon hoa hop vdi dong tu cua chung trong cau; suf dung cac dong td so it vdi danh tu sd it va dong tu sd nhieu vdi danh td so nhieu. Ban phai biet cach hoat dong cua mot danh tu de viet mot cau hieu qua. Danh tcT ricng Keu mot danh td neu ten mot ngu"di hoac mot noi chon dac biet, hoac mot sU kien hay nhom dac biet. thi no diJOc goi la danh td rien g va luon duoc viet hoa. Mot so \i du la Eleanor Roosevelt. .V: :gara Falls, Draeula, Cue dieu tra lien bang, the Great Depression va Desert Storm . Dieu nay duons nhu du don gian.
  8. 16 ba i hpc cach d u n g ngtf p h a p va viet T ien g A n h 9 K hong may la mot so tac gia gan trang thai danh tCr rieng mot cach Ion xon vdfi cac td khac, cac mau tu viet hoa nam rai rac trong suot bai viet cua ho. ChSng han Manhattan Project duoc viet hoa mot cach phu hop vi no la mot cong trinh lich sd, ten nay duoc dat cho mot no lUc dac biet vao thdi chien de thiet ke va xay dung cac vu khi hat nhan dau tien. N h u n g project khong nen duac viet hoa khi de cap den du- an cua mot cau lac bo de don dep ve sinh khuon vien cua trUOng dai hoc. Tuong tu Great Depression nen duoc viet hoa boi vi no de cap den mot thdi ky lich su dac biet cua sU that bai cua nen kinh te von da bat dau vdi su sup do cua thi trUdng chdng khoan vao nam 1929. Khi tif depression de cap den cac thdi ky kho khan cua nen kinh te, tuy nhien no khong phai la danh td rieng ma la danh td chung va khong duac viet hoa. Tinh linh hoat trong viec viet hoa cac danh td la co the chap nhan duoc, chang han ngUdi viet co the co ly do hop ly de viet hoa mot td dac biet va mot so” cong ty sd dung cac htfdng dan ve phong cach nh&m ghi lai cac mau til' in hoa cho cac chdc vu cong viec chSng han nhu-giam doc. NhiJng thong thudng sd dung chd viet hoa ngoai quy luat ca ban la mot no IlTc de cho td mot ve quan trong, va ban nen tranh dieu do. Cac dong td dcTtfc dung lam danh tcjf M o t trudng hop dac biet la khi dong td diiOc dung lam danh td. O day dang dong td di/oc thay doi va no thuc hien chdc nang tuong ty nhu" danh td trong cau. Loai danh td nay duoc goi la gerund (danh dpng tu")
  9. 10 16 ba i hpc cach d u n g n g U p h a p va viet T ien g An h The gerund M ot danh tif difgc tao ra tif dang - i n g cua mot dong tif thi difoc goi la gerund. Giong nhif cac danh tCr khac, gerund thifc hien chufc nang la chu td va tuc tif trong cau. Sleeping so metim es serves as an e s c a p e from studying. Cac gerund sleeping va studying la cac dang - in g cua dong tu1sleep va study. Sleeping la danh td thifc hien chufc nang lam chu tCr trong cau nay, va study la tuc td (trong trifdng hap nay, tuc tii cua mot gidri tCr - xem bai 5). Van dc gerund Gerund doi khi co the kho suf dung mot cach thich hop trong cau. Ban se gap phai van de gi vdi cac gerund? • Khi mot danh tu" hoac dai tii dufng truac mot gerund, sii dung sd hufu cach cua danh tii hoac dai tu\ (Be biet sd hufu cach cua dai tu, hay xem bai 3). Jane's sleeping was sometimes an es c a p e from studying. • Tham chi khi ban nghi rang tif ddng trifdc gerund trong giong nhif mot tuc td, thi h av sd dung sd hufu cach. Jane was annoyed by B i l l ’s studying NO T Jane was annoyed by B ill studying.
  10. 16 ba i hqc cach d u n g n gQ p h a p va viet T ien g An h 11 Cac danh tti tap hop M o t ti/ thay the cho mot nhom sU vat thi diigc goi la danh tif tap hop (collective noun). Trong thuc te, tir group ban than no la mot danh tu" tap hcfp. Sau da y la m ot so tif khac: c lu b , team, committee, furniture, j u r y , Congress, swarm, herd. Thong thiicfng cac danh tif nay di/Oc xem la so it, vi st/ nhan manh nam tren mot don vi thay vi tren cac thanh phan cua no. The team is going on the bus. T h e committee wants to find a solution to the problem. Nhufng khi ban muon nhan manh cac thanh phan rien g biet cua mot nhom, ban co the xem danh tii tap hop la so nhieu. Th e team have argued about going on the bus. T h e com m ittee want different solutions to the problem. Neu so nhieu nghe co ve ngiiOng nghiu, hay thu v ie t lai. T h e team members have argued about going on the bus. Committee members disagree about solutions to the problem.
  11. 12 16 ba i hoc cach d u n g n g U p h a p va viet T ie n g An h Danh tti $6 it va so nhieu TCr num ber am chi den mot danh tCr la so it hoac so nhieu. Hau het cac danh tu deu co the la mot trong hai, phu thuoc vao viec ban dang noi ve mot vat (dog) hay nhieu hon mot vat (dogs). Ban biet quy t&c co ban cua viec them -s de thanh lap so nhieu cua mot danh td, va ban cung biet rang nhieu danh tif khong tuan theo quy tdc do - vi du, sheep (so it), sheep (so nhieu); enemy, enemies', wharf, wharves, hero, heroes, gooes, geese Ban nen kiem tra td dien neu ban khong chac ve mot so nhieu. Bdng them - ’s vao dang so it de thanh lap so nhieu cua no, ngav ca khi danh tu- ma ban dang sd dung la mot ten gia dinh: the Taylors, khong phai the Taylor's', donkeys, khong phai donkey’s', taxis, khong phai ta xi’s. Cac hinh thufc so it va so nhieu cua mot so danh td vdi cac duoi La Tinh hoac H y lap co the gay ra r&c roi. Chang han danh tif data tren thuc te la mot sd nhieu; datum la so it. T h e final datum is not consistent with the pr oceding data, which are positive. Mac du ngay nay sd nhieu data dutfc xem la sd it, nhimg hay cd phan biet, dac biet la trong van ban khoa hoc. Sau day la mot so vi du khac ve cac tu" so it va sd nhieu tieng La Tinh va H y Lap: bacterium , bacteria, criteria, medium, media', alum nus sd ft giong due ) alumni (so nhieu giong duo, alumna so it giong cai 1alumnae (so nhieu giong cai 1. Xeu ban dang viet ve truyen hinh, hay sd dung m edium.
  12. 16 b a i hpc cach d iin g ngtf p h a p va viet T ien g A n h 13 Neu ban dang viet ve radio, truyen hinh va bao, hay su" dung media. S if hufu cach cua danh td Sd hufu cach (possessive case) cua mot danh tu" dufoc dung de bieu thi quyen sd huTu (A lla n ’s car, my sister’s house) hoac moi quan he gan gui khac ( the c h a i r m a n ’s friends, the c u p ’s handle, the university’s p o s itio n ). Cac van dc voi cac danh td stf hdu Dieu gay ra van de vdi cac danh td sd hufu la sir khong chac chan: them dau - s hay chi mot dau phay? H a y tuan theo quy tac sau day: doi vdi cac danh td sd it, them ’s, tham chi neu danh td tan cung bang mot chuf s hoac am 2 : dog’s house’s, Wes’s, Keats’s. Nhi/ng tao ra mot sir ngoai le khi mot chd - s ditoc them vao se dan den ba chd s n&m chum lai vdi nhau s hoac am 2 (Jesus’, Ulysses’) hoac trong cac ten co nhieu hon mot am tiet vdi mot duoi khong dutfc nhan manh diTgc phat am la -eez (Empedocles’, Socrates’, Euripides’). Cac ten Hy Lap thiidng rcfi vao loai nay. Doi vdi hau het cac danh td sd hdu sd nhieu, chi them mot dau phay: several months' bills, many Rumanians’ apartments, the encyclopedia’s diffrences, the R o llin g stomes’ travel plans. Neu danh td sd nhieu khong tan cung bang -s , hay them - ’s, giong nhiJ ban se them vdi mot danh td sd it: women’s issue, mice's tails.
  13. 14 16 ba i hqc cach d u n g n g U p h a p va viet T ie n g A n h Chuyen sang cau true of Khi mot danh td sd hufu nghe co ve nguqng nghiu, thay vi vay hay suf dung cau true of. Day la mot cach an toan va thudng duoc ifa dung de chi ra moi quan he: the top o f the page thay vi the pa g e’s top\ the lawn o f the b uilding on the corner thay vi the building on the corner’s lawn, the main characters o f P rid e and Prejudice thay vi P rid e and P reju d ice’s main characters', the novels o f Dickens thay vi Dickens’s novels. Quyen stf htfu chung M ot ldi sau cung ve cac danh td sd hCfu: khi ban dang chi ra quyen sd hufu chung, hay cho hinh thufc sd hufu chi vao ten sau cung, nhu A bb ott and Costello’s movies; T om and D a w n ’s d in n e r party, S m ith , Wilson, and Nelson’s. So' hoa hop cua danh tdr va dong tuf Su’ hoa hefp la mot khai niem quan trong trong nguf phap va la nguon go'c cua nhieu loi viet. N o se xuat hien lai difdi cac dai tti (bai 3) va difdi phan xay di/ng cau (bai 7). Cac dong tCr phai hoa hop vdi danh tCr cua chung, co nghla rang danh tif sd it yeu cau mot dong t is sd it va danh tu" so nhieu yeu cau mot dong tu so' nhieu. The dog jumps up and down, (so it) The dogs ju m p op and down, (so nhieu j
  14. 16 b a i h p c cdch d u n g n g U p h a p va viet T ien g A n h 15 Hay nhd rang mot danh tCf tan cung bang -s thufcfng la so nhieu, trong khi mot dong tuf tan cung la —s thufcfng la so It: runs in my pantyhose (danh tuf so nhieu); he runs (dong tuf so It). Cac danh tuf vdi cac duoi La Tinh hoac Hy Lap va cac danh tuf trong co ve nhuf so nhieu nhufng doi khi nhan cac dong tuf so nhieu co the gay ra cac van de ve suf hoa hcfp. The data indicate that the test samples are more a ffected by heat than the control group samples. Vi data la hinh thufc so nhieu cuia datum, hay suf dung dang so' nhieu cua dong tuf (trong trufcfng hcfp nay, indicate). Trong vi du sau day, criteria la so' nhieu. Suf dung dang so' nhieu ciia dong tuf (are) The criteria for judging an entry are listed in the brochure. Rights, von la dang so nhieu, dufcfc xem la so it trong vl du sau day vi human rights la mot don vi, mot van de ve suf quan tarn. Human rights is an issue that affects everyone. Neu ban muon nhan manh quyen lcfi mang tinh ca nhan, ban co the suf dung dong tuf so nhieu. Human rights are ignored in many countries. Trong vi du ke tiep, miles la dang so nhieu, nhufng fifty miles dufcfc dung cf day de neu ten mot don vi khoang cach va do do nhan dong tif so it:
  15. 16 16 bd i h oc cach d u n g n g U p h a p va v ie t T ie n g A n h Fifty miles is not such a long distance. Statistics trong giong nhir so nhieu, va trong nhieu tinh huong se duac xem la so nhieu, chang han: Statistics is the subject I most want to avoid. Statistics are being gathered to show that women are better drivers that men. Trong vl du dau tien, statistics am chi den mot chu de nghien cufu, vi vay so it la thich hop. Trong so cac danh tfr thi/crng duoc suf dung khac co the nhan dong tif so it hoac so nhieu, tuy thuoc vao si/ nhan manh nSm tren don vi so it hay tren cac muc rieng biet; la number, majoriy va m inority. The number of people coming is surprising. A number of people are coming. A number like five thousand is what he had in mind. Vdi number, h a y suf d u n g quy tac nay. Neu no duoc d at trUdc bdi the, h a y luon suf d u n g so it. Neu no duoc dat trUdrc bdi a, h a y suf d u n g so it hoac so nhieu, phu thuoc vao viec b a n n gh i ve d an vi so it h ay cac muc rie n g biet. Vcri majoriy va m inority, dieu quan trong la phai quyet dinh xem ban muon nhan manh nhufng ngudi, nhufng vat rieng biet hay ban muon nhan manh len mot don vi don.
  16. 16 b d i h qc cach d u n g n g U p h a p va vie t T ien g A n h The m ajority is opposed to the measure, (singular = single unit) A minority of the younger people refuse to concede the point. (plural = individuals)
  17. 18 16 bd i hqc cach d u n g n g O p h a p va v ie t T ie n g A n h B ai tap trdc nghiem Hoi & dap 1. Xac djnh ca c danh tCr du’dc gach dudi trong ca c cau sau day la danh tu* chung hay danh tu" rieng. a. Dylan plans to go to college in the fall. b. Mary Lagan was accepted to Watson College. 2. Xac dinh ca c danh tu1du’dc gach dudi trong ca c cau sau day la danh tif tap hdp, danh tti so it hay gerund. a. The commission plans to review the report. b. Running is fun. c. My coach is great. d. The firm established a strict dress code. 3. Ket hdp ca c danh tuf du’dc gach dufdi vdi dinh nghla dung cua chung. a. My dog's bone was lost. — so it
  18. 16 b d i h qc cdch d u n g n g U p h d p vd viet T ien g A n h 19 b. The women meet for lunch. sd hufu so it c. My sons’ cars need to be washed. so nhieu d. A girl lost her scart on the bus. sd hufu so nhieu 4. Dien va o ch6 trong vdi dang dung cua dong tCr de lam cho danh tu" va dong tif hoa hdp trong ca c cau sau day. a. Margaret and Tom m y.... .........happy, (look, looks) b. Neither Patrick nor A lex............. the answer. (know, knows) c. John, as well as Ali and Griffin, ...........;..to visit Orlando, (plan, plans) d. Many o f the causes o f global warm ing .............. unknown to scientists, (are, is) e. The danger of d ivin g............. not discourage Lily, (tte, does) f. While wearing her school uniform, Tessie ..;.v.~.,...for charity, (dance, dances) Dap an: 1. a. chung b. rieng 2. a. tap hop b. gerund c. so it d. tap hop 3. a. so hufu so it b. so nhieu c. sd hufu so nhieu d. so it 4. a. look b. know c. plans d. are e. does f. dances.
  19. 20 16 bd i hqc cdch d u n g n git p h d p vd vie t T ie n g A n h Bai 2 Dong ttf Noi dang • Dong tuf hanh dong va dong tti lien he • Active va passive voice • Noi dong tiT va ngoai dong tCr • Stf dung sau thi thong thi/dng • Khac phuc cac van de thong thifdng cua dong tuf
  20. 16 b d i hpc cdch d u n g n g O p h d p vd vie t T ien g A n h 21 ong ti/ la mot tCf loai dien ta hanh dong hoac D mot trang thai dang ton tai hoac noi ket mot chu nguf vdri mot bo nguf. Chung cho biet chu nguT thuc hien hanh dong, duoc goi la active voice, hay nhan hanh dong, dtfcfc goi la passive voice. Dong tCr co the la noi dong tif hoac ngoai dong tif. Thi cua dong tif duoc thanh lap theo ngoi, so va thi. Dong tii cung co cac cach, do la cac xep loai chi ra thai do cua ngUcri noi. Cac van de vdri cac dong tif thiicfng la ket qua cua mot thi khong dung, hoac sii kho khan ma nhieu ngUcfi viet gap phai vdi dang qua khuf hoac qua khuf phan tii cua cac dong tii bat quy tSc. Dong tii dong vai tro quan trong trong viec xay dung cau. Cac dong tcjT hanh dong Dong tii hanh dong lam song dong mot cau, ve mSt the chat (swim, jum p, drop, whistle) hoac ve mSt tinh than (think, dream, believe, suppose, love). Cac dong tii lam cho cau chuyen dong, doi khi day kich tinh, doi khi em dem. She leaped high into the air, twirled, landed on the floor, and ran from the room. He thought of her beauty, imagined her smile, yearned for her presence.
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