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Ứng dụng phương pháp oxy có hạn và kỵ khí để xử lý ammonium trong nước thải nuôi heo

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Ứng dụng phương pháp oxy có hạn và kỵ khí để xử lý ammonium trong nước thải nuôi heo

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Nghiên cứu trình bày thiết kế pilot xử ký nito từ nước thải nuôi lợn có nồng độ ammonium cao sau bề UASB. hệ xử lý gồm 2 quá trình, nitriy hóa có 2 cột 60 lít và một cột Anammox có thể tích 180 lít. Quá trình nitrit hóa được cấy sinh khối Nitrosomonas và quá trình Anammox được cấy sinh khối Anammox đã làm giàu trên chất mang.

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Hgi nghi Khoa hgc ky' niem 35 ndm Vien Khoa hgc vd Cong nghe Viet Nam - Hd Noi 10/2010<br /> <br /> <br /> iTNG DUNG PHlTOTVG P H A P OXY CO HAN vA Ky KHI DE XlT LY<br /> AMMONIUM TRONG NlTdC T H A I NUOI HEO<br /> Le Cong Nhat Phuong, Nguyen Phong Phii<br /> Vien Sinh hpc nhiet ddi<br /> 1 - Mac Dinh Chi, Ql, TP H I Chi Minh<br /> Email: vshnd(g),vaboo.com<br /> Tom tat:<br /> Trong nghiin ciru ndy khi thiit ki pilot xu ly nito tii nude thdi nudi lan cd<br /> ndng dd ammonium cao, sau bi UASB. Hi xie gdm 2 qud trinh, nitrit hod cd 2 cdt<br /> 60 lit vd mdt cdt Anammox cd the tich 180 lit. Qud trinh nitrit hda duac cdy sinh<br /> khdi Nitrosomonas vd qud trinh Anammox duac cdy sinh khdi Anammox dd Idm<br /> giau trin chdt mang. Ammonium ddu vdo pilot cd ndng dd dao ddng tic 256- 424<br /> mg N/L. Kit qud cd duac cao nhdt tie ngdy 180-240 vdi tdi luang vdo la 0,4<br /> m /ngdy. Hiiu qud xu ly ammonium a qud trinh nitrit hda 53.0 ± 6.9%, qud trinh<br /> anammox 89.4 ± 8.6% vd cd qud trinh la vd 95.3 ± 3.5%. Qud trinh nitrit hda<br /> quyit dinh khd ndng xie ly ammonium cita qud trinh Anammox.<br /> Abstract:<br /> This paper describes the performance of a pilot treatment system for nitrogen<br /> removal from an ammonium-rich effluent of UASB reactor treating swine<br /> wastewater. The system consisted of two 60-L column nitritation reactors and one<br /> 180-L column anammox reactor. Nitritation reactors were seeded with activated<br /> biomass Nitrosomonas and anammox reactor was seeded with cultivated<br /> anammox sludge. All the reactors were packed with a mineral biomass carrier.<br /> The influent ammonium concentrations were from 256 to 424 mg-N/L. The best<br /> performance was observed from days 180 to 240 at the influent flow of 0.4 m /d,<br /> corresponding to average loading rate of 0.35 kg-N/m /d. The average ammonium<br /> removal efficiencies over 60 days of operation were 53.0 ± 6.9%), 89.4 ± 8.6%o and<br /> 95.3 ± 3.5% for nitritation stage, anammox stage and overall system, respectively.<br /> This indicates partial nitritation was achieved and subsequent anammox reaction<br /> was highly effective.<br /> <br /> <br /> 1. MO DAU<br /> Cac be thong xir ly nude thai bac 2 thong thudng dugc thiet ke de loai cac chat hiiu co<br /> (danh gia qua cac thong so BOD5, COD), va thudng chi loai dugc mot phan nito ma thoi. Do<br /> vay, viec loai nito thudng phai dugc tien hanh d giai doan tiep theo sau - tiic xir ly bac cao.<br /> Cong nghe sinh hgc truyen thong de xir ly nito lau nay la dua vao su ket hgp cua 2 qua trinh:<br /> nitrat (nitrification) va khir nitrat (denitrification). Tuy nhien, cong nghe xir ly truyen thong<br /> nay co nhiing ban che nhat dinh va su cai tien cong nghe xir ly nito da dugc quan tam tir<br /> nhung thap nien cuoi the ky XX.<br /> Nam 1995 mot phan ling chuyen boa nito mdi chua timg dugc biet den trudc d6 ca ve ly<br /> thuylt lln thuc nghiem da dugc phat hien. Do la phan ung oxy boa ky khi Ammonium<br /> (Anaerobic Ammonium oxidation, viet tat la Anammox). Trong do Ammonium dugc oxy<br /> hoa bdi nitrit trong dieu kien ky khi, khong can cung cap chat hiiu co de tao thanh nito phan<br /> <br /> 173<br /> Tieu ban: Moi tru&ng vd Ndng lugng ISBN: 978-604-913-013-7<br /> <br /> <br /> tir (Strouss va cs, 1995). Sir phat triln phan ling Anammox da md ra hudng phat trien ky<br /> thuat xir ly nito mdi, dac biet la dli vdi nude thai co ham lugng nito cao. Trong vdng hai thap<br /> nien qua da bung no cac nghien ciiu lien quan tdi Anammox va ling dung cua nd.<br /> Theo [5] tham khao mgt so tai lieu trong va ngoai nude nhan thay rang ngoai chu trinh<br /> biin dli nita thong thudng, con co qua trinh bien doi ky khi trong qua trinh oxy hoa<br /> Ammonium vdi sir co mat cua mgt chiing vi sinh vat tu dudng (Anammox) dong thdi nitrit<br /> dong vai tro nhu la chat nhan dien tir.<br /> Theo phuong trinh Van Der Graaf et al,1995 va 1996, Strous et al, 1997, dua ra nhu sau:<br /> N H / + l,32NO2"+0,66HCO3"+0,13H" = 1,02N2 + O.26NO3" + 0,066CH20o,5No,i5 + 2,03H2O (1)<br /> <br /> <br /> 2. PHirONG PHAP - VAT LIEU<br /> 2.1 So do cong nghe xu- ly ammonium trong nu-dc thai nuoi ign<br /> <br /> Nude thai sau Thieu khi Nitrosomonas —!• Lang Nguon<br /> — • — • Anammox — •<br /> bl UASB tiep nhan<br /> A<br /> <br /> May thoi khi Hinh I: So dd cdng nghi<br /> <br /> <br /> 2.2 Phu-ong phap va mo hinh<br /> De thuc hien dugc qua trinh xir ly ammonium trong nude thai nuoi Ign, mo hinh dugc<br /> thiet lap qua hai giai doan, vi qua trinh anammox can moi trudng vao de nhom vi khuan nay<br /> lam viec dugc, can c6 ti le nong dp N-NH4:N-N02 =1: 1±0,2, ma trong nude thai nuoi heo sau<br /> qua trinh xir ly ky khi, lam giam chu yeu la COD c6 thi tang N-NH4 va P-PO4 dli vdi nude<br /> thai dau ra, do do viec thiet ke mo hinh thi nghiem can phai qua qua trinh nitrit boa. Khi tinh<br /> toan thiet bi phii hgp cho qua trinh nitrit la van de rat can thiit dl dilu khiln qua trinh nitrit<br /> boa theo tinh toan. Day la giai doan quyet dinh cho qua trinh anammox va ca qua trinh xir ly<br /> ammonium<br /> Thiet bi diing cho thi nghiem xir ly ammonium trong nude thai nuoi Ign, dugc thuc hien<br /> trong 2 giai doan tren 2 thiet bi khac nhau nhu sau:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Nude vao<br /> mo hinh sau<br /> qua trinh xu Nude ra<br /> lyUASB<br /> <br /> <br /> Hinh 2: Md hinh Xie ly Ammonium cdng sudt 500 lit/ngdy -Xi nghiep Ipn gidng Ddng A<br /> Ghi chit: Cdt 1 - Nitrit cd thi tich 60lit v&i gid thi (D=300; H= 900): Cot 2 - Nitrit cd thi<br /> tich 60lit, vdi gid thi (D=300; H= 900); Cdt 3 - Anammox cd thi tich ISOlit (D=500; H=<br /> 800); 4 - Mdy bam dinh luang 150-520 lit/ngdy; 5 - Mdy thdi khi 1 Slit/phut<br /> <br /> 174<br /> Hgi nghi Khoa hgc ky niem 35 ndm Vien Khoa hgc vd Cong nghe Viet Nam - Hd Not 10/2010<br /> <br /> Thanh phan nu-dc thai dau vao: Mo hinh thi nghiem dugc van hanh vdi nude thai nuoi Ign<br /> d Xi nghiep Ign giong Dong A - Di An - Binh Duong, vdi cong suat 1 Olit/ngay. Nong do thanh<br /> phan dau vao mo hinh nhu trong bang 1 dudi day. Nude thai van hanh mo hinh thi nghiem, sau be<br /> ky khi ciia he thong xir ly nude thai nuoi Ign. Xi nghiep Ign giong Dong A -DT An - Binh Duong.<br /> <br /> Bdng 1: Bdng thdnh phdn cdc chi tieu hod ly<br /> <br /> Gid tri do<br /> Cdc chi<br /> TT Dan vi<br /> tiiu<br /> Thdp nhdt Cao nhdt Trung binh<br /> <br /> 1 pH 7,12 8,05 7,69<br /> <br /> 2 COD mg/l 115 320 184<br /> <br /> 3 N-NH4 mg/l 256 424 320<br /> <br /> 4 N-NO2 mg/l 0,0 1,5 0,5<br /> <br /> 5 N-NO3 mg/l 0.0 3,8 1,2<br /> <br /> 6 P-PO4 mg/l 20 60 36,9<br /> <br /> 7 SS mg/l 52 185 98,5<br /> <br /> Nude thai nuoi Ign sau be UASB da loai phan ldn COD, nhung con lai phan ldn cac chat<br /> N-NH4, Tong P, Fe. Nhiing chat nay la moi trudng tot cho qua trinh lam viec ciia nh6m vi<br /> khuan Nitrosomonas vd Anammox, vi vay viec ung dung hai nhom vi khuan nay cho qua trinh<br /> xir ly N-NH4 la dieu kien tot nhat theo (Jennifer Ridenoure, 2004).<br /> 2.3 Phuong phap phan tich<br /> Phan tich cac chi tieu thanh phan hoa hpc co trong nude trudc va sau xir ly nhu: N-NH4,<br /> N-NO3, N-NO2, COD, DO, pH, ting P va TDS ...). Phan tich cac chi tieu tiln hanh theo cac<br /> phuong phap trong "STANDARD METHODS for the examination of water and wastewater"<br /> (tai ban lan thir 20, 1999). Tren may so mau Thermo Spectronic Moder 4001/4,USA, may<br /> TOA, Model 22, Japan va may do pH (Model 2000 VWR Scientific, USA), tai Phong phan<br /> tich Moi trudng, Vien Sinh hpc Nhiet ddi. Qua trinh phan tich dugc tien hanh la 2 ngay lay<br /> mau mgt lan. Lay mau bang binh nhua 1 lit, phuong phap lay mau theo tieu chuan Viet Nam.<br /> 2.4 Vi khuan Nitrosomonas - Anammox trong he thong xir ly<br /> Trong qua trinh Nitrit dugc cay lOOOg vi khuan Nitrosomonas (Phong vi sinh - Vien Sinh<br /> hpc Nhiet ddi) vao cot 1 the tich 2 x 601it. Biin Anammox c6 nong dp SS lOg/lit trong cot 2,<br /> thi tich 200 lit dugc lay tir qua trinh tich luy lam giau sau 9 thang trong moi trudng phii hgp<br /> <br /> 3. KET QUA VA THAO LUAN<br /> 3.1 Ket qua va hieu suat xu- ly N-NH4 bang qua trinh Nitrit hoa-Anammox<br /> Sau giai doan thich nghi, tir ngay thii 60 den ngay thir 120 luu lupng nude thai vao<br /> giam tir 5001it/ngay xuong con 2001it/ngay va van hanh lien tuc, thi hieu suat bat dau on dinh<br /> <br /> 175<br /> Tieu ban: Moi trudng vd Ndng lugng ISBN: 978-604-913-013-7<br /> <br /> <br /> va tang dIu tir 48,5 din 86,9%), nhan thiy sir tang sinh khoi mpt each ro ret d ca hai nhom yi<br /> khuin va sinh khIi vi khuin Anammox, theo tinh toan thi den thdi gian nay thi sinh khoi<br /> Nitrosomonas tang dugc 151,5 g va sinh khIi nhom vi khuan Anammox tang 171,82 g la do<br /> vi khuin phat triln theo co cbl phan ling (1) dong thdi vi khuan sir dung va tich tu du trir<br /> photpho trong tl bao. Sinh khoi trong cot 2 tir mau nau chuyen sang mau do.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Hinh 3: Anh nhdm vi khudn Nitrosomonas-Anammox tren chdt mang<br /> <br /> Tir ngay thii 180 den ngay thii 240 khi tang luu lugng nude len 4001it/ngay, thi hieu suit<br /> xir ly tiep tuc on dinh va tang nhe (tir 87,5 din 97,9%). Din thdi gian nay thi sinh khIi ca hai<br /> nhom vi khuan Nitrosomonas vd Anammox da tang nhanh va on dinh. Sinh khIi<br /> Nitrosomonas tang dugc 979 g va sinh khIi nhom vi khuin Anammox tang 1083,5 g. Sinh<br /> khoi trong cot 2 tir mau nau do chuyen sang mau do dam (hinh 3).<br /> - Tang luu lupng nude tir 200 lit/ngay din 400 lit/ngay, sau giai doan thich nghi dl In<br /> dinh hieu suat xu ly bat dau tang dat tir 87,5 - 97,9%, din thdi gian nay su tang sinh<br /> khoi ca hai nhom vi khuan Nitrosomonas va Anammox da phat triln nhanh.<br /> - Ket qua dat dugc d qui mo pilot hoan toan phu hgp vdi kit qua cua nhilu tac gia khac<br /> (bang 2), md ra kha nang ung dung trong xu ammonium trong nude thai nuoi Ign.<br /> - Tang luu lugng nude tir 200 lit/ngay din 400 lit/ngay, sau giai doan thich nghi dl In<br /> dinh hieu suit xir ly bit diu tang dat tir 87,5 - 97,9%, din thdi gian nay su tang sinh<br /> khoi ca hai nh6m vi khuan Nitrosomonas va Anammox da phat triln nhanh.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> N-NHj vao<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> N-NHj Nitrit<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> N-NHjra<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 250 300<br /> Ngay<br /> <br /> Hinh 1: Su gidm N-NH4 cdc qud trinh Nitrit hda-Anammox<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 176<br /> Hgi nghi Khoa hgc ky niem 35 ndm Vien Khoa hgc vd Cong nghe Viet Nam - Hd Noi 10/2010<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Hinh 2: Hiiu sudt xic ly N-NH4 bdng qud trinh Nitrit hda - Anammox<br /> <br /> <br /> Bdng 2: So sdnh tdi luang xic ly ammonium vdi cdc tdc gid khdc<br /> <br /> Tdi trong logi (kgN-<br /> Qud trinh Hieu sudt (%) Ghi chii<br /> NH/nZ/ng)<br /> <br /> 0,59 71-82 N02/NH4:1,48<br /> Nitrit hoa-Anammox theo [17]<br /> 0,66 65-80 N02/NH4:1,79<br /> <br /> Mo hinh: 0,17-0,33 80-95 Khi N2<br /> Nitrit hoa -Anammox trong bdo<br /> cdo nay<br /> Pilot: 0,25-0,4 90-97 N02/NH,:},1<br /> <br /> 0,58 89,4<br /> SNAP theo [19]<br /> 0,96 86,8<br /> <br /> CANON-Anammox theo [18] 8,9 Khi<br /> <br /> 0,7 82<br /> Anammox theo [21]<br /> 1,5 99<br /> <br /> Anammox theo [15] 0,7-0,8 - Biin heo<br /> <br /> Anammox theo [16] 0,5 - BCin heo<br /> <br /> 0,438 91<br /> Nitrit hoa-Anammox theo [20]<br /> 1,349 42<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 177<br /> Tiiu ban: Moi tru&ng vd Ndng lugng ISBN: 978-604-913-013-7<br /> <br /> <br /> 3.2 Mot s6 ghi nhan khac lien quan den hoat dong cua Pilot<br /> - Biin dli gia tri DO trung binh qua hai giai doan, trong 240 ngay van hanh nhu sau:<br /> nIng do DO diu vao la 0,1 - 0,2 mg/lit, d giai doan Nitrit hda nIng do DO la 0,7 - 0,9<br /> mg/lit va giai doan Anammox nong do DO la 0,3 - 0,4 mg/lit.<br /> - Biin dli gia tri pH trung binh qua hai giai doan nhu sau: pH dau vao 7,5 - 8,1, d giai<br /> doan nitrit boa pH 6,8- 7,9 va d giai doan Anammox pH 8,0 - 8,5.<br /> - Kit qua xir ly P-PO4: Hieu qua xir ly P-PO4 gia tri trung binh qua hai giai doan sau<br /> 240 ngay van hanh la 48 - 64%).<br /> Kit qua phan tich trong tit ca cac mau, nhan thiy nIng do P-PO4 cung giam ro trong qua<br /> trinh nitrit boa tir 32-60 mg/l diu vao xuIng con 26-46 mg/l d diu ra, trung binh dat 35%. C)<br /> qua trinh Anammox ciing da loai tilp dugc 18-30%), tir 26-46 mg/l P-PO4 dau vao con lai<br /> 10,8-18 mg/l P-PO4 diu ra, tir do ting hieu suit cua ca qua trinh la 48-64%).<br /> Mat khac trong suot thdi gian van hanh pilot, hieu suat xir ly P-PO4 phu thuoc vao hieu suat<br /> xir ly N-NH4, khi hieu suat xir ly cua N-NH4 tang thi hieu suat P-PO4 dong thdi ciing tang, theo<br /> I.S. Hwang va cong su thi khi xir ly N-NH4 dat hieu suat 94,1 % thi hieu suat loai P-PO4 dat<br /> 87,2%.<br /> Ket qua xir ly COD: Hieu suat xir ly 20-50% la gia tri trung binh cua ca hai giai doan keo<br /> dai 240 ngay van hanh pilot.<br /> Ket qua phan tich d ca hai giai doan da ghi nhan dugc ham lupng COD d giai doan nitrit hoa<br /> giam 16-28% (tir 150 ±50 mg/l, xuong con 125 ± 32mg/l), trong khi d qua trinh Anammox, COD<br /> ciing giam nhung khong cao, dat hieu suat tir 10-18% (tir 97 ± 32mg/l, xuong con 83 ± 26mg/l).<br /> <br /> <br /> 4. KET LUAN<br /> - Ket hgp thanh cong hai qua trinh Nitritanammox xir ly N-NH4 vdi hieu siiat rit cao hon<br /> 90% doi vdi nude thai nuoi Ign sau giai doan xir ly COD bang phuang phap ky khi.<br /> - Chgn dugc gia the phii hgp cho nhom vi khuan Nitro-anammox.<br /> <br /> <br /> TAI LIEU THAM KHAO<br /> 1. Chung J., Bae W., Lee Y. W., and others (2004), "Investigation of the effect of free<br /> ammonia concentration upon leachate treatment by shortcut biological nitrogen<br /> removal process", J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part Anammox-Tox Hazard Subst Environ<br /> Eng., 39 (7), 1655-1665.<br /> 2. Egli K., Franger U., and others, (2001), "Enrichment and characterization of an<br /> anammox bacterium from a rotating biological contactor treating ammonium-rich<br /> leachate". Arch. Microbiol, 175,198-207.<br /> 3. Fujji T. H., Rouse D. J., Furukawa K., (2002), "Characterization of the microbial<br /> community in an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing biofilm cultured on a nonwoven<br /> biomass carrier", J. Biosci.Bioeng., 94, 412-418.<br /> 4. Furukawa K., Rouse J. D., Bhatti Z. I., Imajo U. (2002;, "Anaerobic ammonium<br /> oxidation (anammox) in continuos flow treatment with non-woven biomass carrier ",<br /> In Proceedings of the ISEB Fifth International Symposium on Environmental<br /> <br /> 178<br /> Hgi nghi Khoa hgc ky niem 35 ndm Vien Khoa hgc vd Cong nghe Viet Nam - Hd Noi 10/2010<br /> <br /> <br /> Biotechnology, Kyoto, Japan. The International Society for Environmental<br /> Biotechnology Waterioo, ON, Canada, CD-ROM.<br /> 5. Hellinga C , Schellen A.A.J.C, and others, (1998), "The SHARON process: an<br /> innovative method for nitrogen removal from ammoniumrich wastewater", Wat Sci<br /> Tech., 37:135-142.<br /> 6. Jayamohan S., Ohgaki S., Hanaki K., (1988), "EfiTect of DO on kinetics of<br /> nitrification". Water Supply, 6, 141-150.<br /> 7. Jetten M.S.M., Wagner M., Fuerst J., and others, (2001) "Microbiology and application of<br /> the anaerobic ammonium oxidation 'anammox'process", Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 12,<br /> 283-288.<br /> 8. Lindsay M. R., Webb R. I., and others (2001), "Cell compartmentalisation in plancto-<br /> mycetes: novel tupes of structural organisation for the bacteria cell". Arch. Microbiol.,<br /> 175,413-429.<br /> 9. Mulder A., Van de Graaf A. A., and others (1995), "Anaerobic ammonium oxidation<br /> discovered in a denitrifyingfluidezed bed reactor", FEMS Microbiol. Ecol, 16, 177-<br /> 184.<br /> 10. Mulder A., (2003), "The quest for sustainable nitrogen removal technologies". Waste<br /> Science and Technology, 48 (1), 67-75.<br /> 11. Pynaert K., Wyffels S., and others (2002), "Oxygen-limited nitrogen removal in a lab-scale<br /> rotating biological contactor treating an ammonium-rich wastewater". Water Sci Technol,<br /> 45, 357-363.<br /> 12. Schmid M., Twacbtmann U., and others, (2002), "Molecular evidence for genus level<br /> diversity of bacteria capable of catalyzing anaerobic ammonia oxidation", Syst.Appl<br /> Microbiol, 23,93-106.<br /> 13. Schmid M. C , Maas B., and others (2005), "Biomarkers for in situ detection of<br /> amaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria", Appl Environ Microbiol., 71<br /> (4) 1677-1684.<br /> 14. Van de Graaf A. A., de Bmijin P., and others (1996), "Autotrophic growth of anaerobic<br /> ammonium oxidizing microorganisms in a fluidized bed reactor". Microbiology, 142,<br /> 2187-96.<br /> 15. Vanotti, Matias, and others, "Development ofanaerbic ammonium oxidation (anammox)<br /> technology using immobilized biomass from swine manure", RAMIRAN, 9-12/11/06,<br /> 143-146.<br /> 16. Vanotti, M.B., Furukawa, and others (2005), "Nitrogen removal with the anaerobic<br /> ammonia oxidation (Anammox) process using polymer gel biomass carrier seeded with<br /> swine effluent sludge". Proceedings of Annual International Meeting, July 17-20, 2005,<br /> Tampa, Florida.<br /> 17. Y.H. Ahn, I.S. Hwang, K.S. Min, (2004), "ANAMMOX and partial denitritation in<br /> anaerobic nitrosen removal from pissery waste ", Water Science & Technology, Vol 49,<br /> No 5-6, 145-153.<br /> 18. A.Olav Slickers a, K.A. Third b, W. Abma c, J.G. Kuenen a, M.S.M. Jetten, (2003),<br /> "CANON and Anammox in a gas-lift reactor", FEMS Microbiology Letters, 218, 339-<br /> 344.<br /> <br /> <br /> 179<br /> Tiiu ban: Moi tru&ng vd Ndng tugng ISBN: 978-604-913-013-7<br /> <br /> <br /> 19. Pham Khac Lieu, "Nitrogen removal from landfill leachate using a single-stage process<br /> combining anammox and partial ntritation", Kumamoto Uni. Japan, Feb., 2006. Doctor<br /> of Eng.<br /> 20. Egli, K., and others, (2001), "Enrichment and characterization of an anammox bacterium<br /> from a rotating biological contactor treating ammonium-rich leachate ", Arch. Microbiol<br /> 175,198-207.<br /> 21. Mac Strous, and others, (1997), "Ammonium removal from concentrated waste<br /> streams with the anammox process different reactor configurations", W.Rese, Vol 31,<br /> No8, 1955-1962.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 180<br />
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