Sequencing reaction

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  • The term DNA sequencing refers to methods for determining the order of the nucleotides bases adenine,guanine,cytosine and thymine in a molecule of DNA. The first DNA sequence were obtained by academic researchers,using laboratories methods based on 2- dimensional chromatography in the early 1970s. By the development of dye based sequencing method with automated analysis,DNA sequencing has become easier and faster.

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  • Automated DNA sequencing is a core research tool used by almost every research biochemistry lab. It is used to determine the sequence of DNA, or the genetic code, that serves as the blueprint of life for every organism on Earth.

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  • Molecular Targets for UVR-Induced Skin Effects Epidermal DNA, predominantly in keratinocytes and in Langerhans cells (LCs), which are dendritic antigen-presenting cells, absorbs UV-B and undergoes structural changes including the formation of cyclobutane dimers and 6,4photoproducts. These structural changes are potentially mutagenic and can be repaired by mechanisms that result in their recognition and excision and the reestablishment of normal base sequences.

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  • In order to identify an enzyme capable of Fenton reaction inSynechocystis, we purified an enzyme catalyzing one-electron reduction oft-butyl hydro-peroxide in the presence of FAD and Fe(III)-EDTA. The enzyme was a 26 kDa protein, and its N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed it to be DrgA protein previously reported as quinone reductase [Matsuo M, Endo T and Asada K (1998)Plant Cell Physiol39,751–755].

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  • Transglutaminase 1 (TGase 1) is an essential enzyme for cornified enve-lope formation in stratified squamous epithelia. This enzyme catalyzes the cross-linking of glutamine and lysine residues in structural proteins in differentiating keratinocytes. To gain insight into the preferred substrate structure of TGase 1, we used a phage-displayed random peptide library to screen primary amino acid sequences that are preferentially selected by human TGase 1.

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  • Concept of hybrid molecules: When double strand DNA is steamed to a temperature exceed the melting temperature (Tm), it will separate into 2 single strands DNA due to breaks of H bonds. If the reaction temperature is then decreased slowly plus other appropriate experimental conditions, these ssDNA will pair again. This phenomenon is called the hybridization of molecules. Characteristic of the hybrid molecules: Specificity, the re-pairing occurs only between two complementary sequences.

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  • Ngày nay, do nhu cầu đời sống của con ngƣời đƣợc nâng cao nên vấn đề thƣ giãn tinh thần ngày càng đƣợc coi trọng. Hiện nay vấn đề chơi cây cảnh trên địa bàn Tp. Hồ Chí Minh (Tp: thành phố) ngày càng phát triển trong đó có xƣơng rồng. Xƣơng rồng đang dần đƣợc khẳng định trên địa bàn Tp. Hồ Chí Minh vì chúng tƣơng đối dễ trồng, giá cả phải chăng, ai cũng có thể chơi và chăm sóc. Xƣơng rồng dù sống trên sa mạc khô cằn vẫn nở hoa sặc sở, thể hiện một...

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  • Although processes for the production of LVOC are extremely diverse and complex, they are typically composed of a combination of simpler activities and equipment that are based on similar scientific and engineering principles. Chapter 2 describes how unit processes, unit operations, site infrastructure, energy control and management systems are combined and modified to create a production sequence for the desired LVOC product.

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  • The second chapter discusses how DNA bisulfite treatment together with high-throughput sequencing allows determining the DNA methylation on a whole genome scale at single cytosine resolution and introduces software for analysis of bisulfite sequencing data. The third chapter presents analysis of GC3-rich genes that have more methylation targets.

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  • The view has been widely held that pepsin-like aspartic proteinases are found only in eukaryotes, and not in bacteria. However, a recent bioinfor-matics search [Rawlings ND & Bateman A (2009)BMC Genomics10, 437] revealed that, in seven of 1000 completely sequenced bacterial genomes, genes were present encoding polypeptides that displayed the requisite hall-mark sequence motifs of pepsin-like aspartic proteinases.

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  • Telomeres play an important role in cellular aging and cancer. Human telomeric DNA and RNA G-rich sequences are capable of forming a four-stranded structure, known as the G-quadruplex. Such a structure might be important for telomere biology and a good target for drug design.

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  • An exo-1,3-b-glucanase has been isolated from cultural filtrate of Trichoderma viride AZ36. The N-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme (m ¼ 61 ^ 1 kDa) showed no significant homology to other known glucanases. The 1,3-b-glucanase displayed high activity against laminarins, curdlan, and 1,3-b-oligoglucosides, but acted slowly on 1,3-1,4-b-oligoglucosides. No significant activity was detected against high molecular mass 1,3-1,4-bglucans. The enzyme carried out hydrolysis with inversion of the anomeric configuration.

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  • Nowadays, with over a thousand bacterial genomes sequenced, even greater opportunities have opened for experimental or computational global analysis of metabolism, physiology, and evolution. In particular, the access to comprehensive sets of molecular components (genes, proteins, regulatory signals) is at the basis of the development of novel integrative approaches, aiming at understanding the function of specific sets of these components (operons, regulons, metabolic pathways, protein complexes, etc.) in the context of the whole organism.

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  • The first half of 2009 brought with it an extraordinary and unexpected burst of activity concerning international tax matters. Tax havens found themselves in the eye of a proverbial perfect storm.

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  • A homology search of the genome database of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reeseiidentified a new T. reeseityrosinase gene tyr2, encoding a protein with a putative signal sequence. The gene was overexpressed in the native host under the strong cbh1 promoter, and the tyrosinase enzyme was secreted into the culture supernatant.

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  • Triterpenes exhibit a wide range of structural diversity produced by a sequence of biosynthetic reactions. Cyclization of oxidosqualene is the ini-tial origin of structural diversity of skeletons in their biosynthesis, and sub-sequent regio- and stereospecific hydroxylation of the triterpene skeleton produces further structural diversity.

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  • Nanog is a transcription factor that plays key roles in the self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency in human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Among Nanog’s 11 pseudogenes, NANOGP8 theoretically could be a retrogene, but was considered unlikely as it has not been identified in any expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

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  • Cardosin A is an RGD-containing aspartic proteinase from the stigmatic papillae ofCynara cardunculusL. A putative cardosin A-binding protein has previously been isolated from pollen suggesting its potential involve-ment in pollen–pistil interaction [Faro C, Ramalho-Santos M, Vieira M, Mendes A, Simo˜es I, Andrade R, Verissimo P, Lin X, Tang J & Pires E (1999) J Biol Chem274, 28724–28729].

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  • Anserinase (Xaa-methyl-His dipeptidase, EC is a dipeptidase that mainly catalyzes the hydrolysis ofNa-acetylhistidine in the brain, retina and vitreous body of all poikilothermic vertebrates. The gene encoding anserinase has not been previously identified. We report the molecular identification of anserinase, purified from brain of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

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  • The high specificity ofa-conotoxins for different neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors makes them important probes for dissecting receptor subtype selectivity. New sequences continue to expand the diversity and utility of the pool of available a-conotoxins. Their identification andcharacterizationdependonasuiteoftechniques with increasing emphasis on mass spectrometry and micro-scale chromatography, which have benefited from recent advances in resolution and capability.

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