Tumor development

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  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its three related proteins (the ERBB family) are receptor tyrosine kinases that play essential roles in both normal physiological conditions and cancerous conditions. Upon binding its ligands, dynamic conformational changes occur in both extra-

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  • The discovery that signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a key role in tumorigenesis prompted efforts to target this receptor in anticancer therapy. Two different types of EGFR-targeted ther-apeutic agents were subsequently developed: mAbs, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the extracellular domain of the receptor,

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  • A plethora of corroborative genetic studies led to the view that, across the animal kingdom, the gene-regulatory cascades triggering sexual develop-ment bear little resemblance to each other. As a result, the common emerg-ing picture is that the genes at the top of the cascade are not conserved

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  • Over the past few decades, numerous small molecules have been designed to specifically and selectively target the unusual secondary structure in DNA called the G-quadruplex. Because these ligands have been shown to selectively inhibit the growth of cancer cells, they have become a central focus for the development of novel anticancer agents.

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  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is induced by many proin-flammatory and pro-oxidant factors. Among them, tumor necrosis factora (TNFa), a pivotal early mediator that regulates and amplifies the develop-ment of inflammation, is one of the strongest PAI-1 synthesis activators. Location of the TNFa response element in the PAI-1 promoter is still ambiguous.

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  • The reactive site loop of serpins undoubtedly defines in part their ability to inhibit a particular enzyme. Exchanges in the reactive loop of serpins might reassign the targets and modify the serpin–protease interaction kinetics. Based on this concept, we have developed a procedure to change the specificity of known serpins. First, reactive loops are very good substrates for the target enzymes. Therefore, we have used the phage-display technology to select from a penta-peptide phage library the best substrates for the human prostatekallikreinhK2 ...

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  • Colon cancer is one of the most common human cancers worldwide. Owing to its aggressiveness and lethality, it is necessary to determine the mecha-nisms regulating the carcinogenesis of colon cancer. EphrinA5 has been reported to act as a putative tumor suppressor in glioma; however, little is known concerning the role of this protein in the context of colon cancer.

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  • We discuss mechanisms that enable the scaling of pattern with size during the development of multicellular organisms. Recently, we analyzed scaling in the context of the early Xenopusembryo, focusing on the determination of the dorsal–ventral axis by a gradient of BMP activation.

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  • The mammalian preimplantation embryo is a critical and unique stage in embryonic development. This stage includes a series of crucial events: the transition from oocyte to embryo, the first cell divisions, and the establish-ment of cellular contacts.

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  • Computed tomography (CT) is the mainstay of cancer imaging outside of the central nervous system. Advances in multidetector CT (MDCT) technology have had a profound impact on its diagnostic capabilities. Such techniques as multiphase, single breath-hold imaging, CT angiography (CTA), volume rendering and virtual colonography owe their success to the development of multidetector arrays with continuously moving gantries.

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  • The book Cell Interaction focuses on various processes that occur within and outside the cells. Cell interactions are important for functioning of many organ systems: cell adhesion, tissue development, cellular communication, inflammation, tumor metastasis, and microbial infection. Key features include developmental cell interactions, immune and neural cell interactions, cell interactions in normal and disease conditions and advanced level methods to evaluate cell interactions.

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  • The all-too-common conditions this woman and her children face illustrate how health programs and weak systems in many developing countries are not meeting needs. Although health services may be available, too often they are of poor quality and are provided in an uncoordinated or ad hoc manner. Often, they are organized around funding sources or diseases, rather than in a way that addresses the broader needs of the populations they seek to serve.

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  • Immune system is composed of innate and adaptive responses and plays critical roles in cancer development and destruction. A century ago, Paul Ehrlich postulated that cancer would be quite common in long-lived organisms if not for the protective effects of immunity. About 50 years later, Burnet and Thomas proposed the concept of cancer immunosurveillance based on the experimental evidence of immune recognition of tumor antigens expressed on tumor cells (Dunn et al. 2004 ) . In 1971, the US Congress created a National Cancer Act – a War on Cancer.

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  • The prognosis for individuals with liver cancer is frequently poor. Cancers include those which have metastasized to the liver from elsewhere, reflecting advanced stage disease where cure is rarely possible. Similarly, primary liver cancer frequently complicates chronic liver disease, which further limits therapeutic options. Despite these dismal facts, there are signs that change is imminent. Not only have imaging modalities and surgical techniques improved, but preventive strategies and medical therapies show promise.

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  • Great advances have been performed in the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases but the search of specific protective or risk biomarkers is an unsolved field. Since completion of the human genome project a rapid progress in genetics and bioinformatics have enabled the development of multiple tools as well as a large public databases, which include genetic and genomic data linked to clinical health data.

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  • Breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. More than 180,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer are diagnosed each year, and more than 40,000 women die of the disease. Recent years, however, have seen improvements in survival attributed to better treatment and earlier diagnosis. Research efforts have been directed toward better treatment, preventive strategies, and early detection.

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  • The health effects of violence against women are serious, far-reaching, and intertwined. Health care providers have the opportunity and the obligation to identify cases of abuse. For many women in developing countries, a visit to a health clinic for reproductive or child health services may be their only contact with the health care system. The health care sector can capitalize on this opportunity by ensuring a supportive and safe environment for clients, helping providers ask about abuse, and helping women receive the care they need.

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  • A dramatic increase in knowledge regarding the molecular biology of brain tumors has been established over the past few years, and this has lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this book a review of the options available for the clinical management of patients with these tumors are outlined. In addition advances in radiology both for pre-operative diagnostic purposes along with surgical planning are described.

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  • In much of the developing world, health systems at the local level are fundamentally failing to sustain and improve the lives of women. In many cases women are the last to receive adequate health care and are dying because of it. Women are dying because they do not have access to emergency obstetric care when they require it. Women are at risk because their nation, province or village has not placed sufficient priority on ensuring that they are protected from the threat of contracting HIV/AIDS.

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  • Although substantial economic development and improvement of health services have occurred, Asia is a heterogeneous and resource-constrained continent. Over half of the 50 million people with epilepsy worldwide are estimated to live in Asia (Mac et al., 2007). There are some biological differences in epilepsy between Asia and the West, mainly related to the young average age and smaller physique among Asians. This probably partly explains the smaller doses of antiepileptic drugs found effective in some trials involving Asians (Yang et al., 2007).

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