Bài giảng môn Phương pháp kiểm tra và đánh giá học tập: Chapter 2 - Phan Thị Thu Nga

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Language tests are chronologically classified according to four main approaches: the essay translation approach, the structuralist approach, the integrative approach, the communicative approach.

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Nội dung Text: Bài giảng môn Phương pháp kiểm tra và đánh giá học tập: Chapter 2 - Phan Thị Thu Nga

  1. Chapter 2 Approaches to language testing Language tests are chronologically classified according to four main approaches: (1) the essay translation approach; (2) the structuralist approach; (3) the integrative approach; and (4) the communicative approach
  2. (1) the essay translation approach Characteristics: No special skill or expertise in testing Subjective judgment of teacher Essay writing, translation & grammatical analysis (comments about the language)
  3. Disadvantages:  tests  a heavy literary and cultural bias  an aural/ oral component at the upper intermediate & advantage levels as something additional & not an integral part of the syllabus or examination
  4. (2) the structuralist approach Language learning  chiefly concerned with the systematic acquisition of set of habits. Focusing the importance of contrastive analysis & the need to identify & measure learners’ mastery of separated elements of L2:phonology, vocabulary & grammar
  5. Listening, speaking, reading & writing are separated from one another & it’s essential to test one skill at a time. The need for statistical measures of reliability & validity - important in testing multiple choice item
  6. (3) the integrative approach involving the testing of language in context & concerned with the meaning and the total communicative effect of discourse. assessing the learners’ ability to use two or more skills simultaneously, or a global view of proficiency. involving functional language but not the use of functional language. Forms: cloze test & dictation
  7. Cloze testing  Principle: the Gestalt theory of “closure”  Purpose: measuring the reader’s ability to decode ‘interrupted’ or ‘mutilated’ messages by making the most acceptable substitutions from all the contextual clues available
  8.  Requirements: to fill in each blank in the text itself  Methods of scoring: one mark  acceptable answer; another  each exact answer. misspelling not be penalized measuring familiarity with the grammar of the language rather than reading
  9. Evidence from research studies performance on cloze tests correlates highly with listening, writing & speaking close testing: a good indicator of general linguistic ability
  10. linguistic knowledge, textual knowledge & knowledge of the world cloze tests: achievement, proficiency tests, classroom placement tests & diagnostic tests
  11. Dictation Purpose: previously regarded solely as a means of measuring students’ skills of listening comprehension. Auditory discrimination, the auditory memory span, spelling, the recognition of sound segments, a familiarity with grammatical and lexical patterning of the language, and overall textual comprehension
  12. good predicators of global language ability, but recent research has found that dictation tends to measure lower-order language skills- straightforward comprehension rather that high-order skills- inference.
  13. (4) the communicative approach concerned primarily with how language is used in communication Communicative competence achieved without a considerable mastery of grammar resulting in an attempt to obtain different profiles of a learner’s performance in the language
  14. The score obtained on a communicative test several measures of proficiency rather than simply one overall measure. Reflecting the culture of a particular country because of its emphasis on context and the use of authentic materials. Introducing the concept of qualitative modes of assessment in preference to quantitative ones



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