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Bài giảng môn Phương pháp kiểm tra và đánh giá học tập: Chapter 10 - Phan Thị Thu Nga

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Chapter 10 presents criteria and test types. This chapter include contents as: Validity, reliability, discrimination, administration, test instructions to candidates, backwash effects,...

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Nội dung Text: Bài giảng môn Phương pháp kiểm tra và đánh giá học tập: Chapter 10 - Phan Thị Thu Nga

  1. Chapter 10: Criteria and Test Types
  2. A. Criteria 1. Validity 2. Reliability 3. Discrimination 4. Administration 5. Test instructions to candidates 6. Backwash effects
  3. 1. Validity Validity  the extent to which it measures what it is supposed to measure & nothing else (content)  Face validity  Content validity  Construct validity  Empirical validity
  4.  Face validity  If a test item looks right to other testers, teachers, moderators & testees  described as having face validity  In the past, regarded by test writers simply as a public relations exercise  Now, designers of communicative tests: face validity- the most important of all types of validity
  5.  Content validity  Depending on a careful analysis of the language being tested & of the particular course objective  When constructing tests, writers should first draw up a table of test specifications (language skills, areas included…)
  6.  Construct validity  A test having construct validity is capable of measuring specific characteristics in accordance with a theory of language behavior and learning  For example, a test consisting of multiple choice items will lack construct validity if the communicative approach is adopted during the language course
  7.  Empirical /statistical validity This kind of validity obtained as a result of comparing the results of the test with the results of some criterion measure such as:  An existing test, known to be valid and given at the same time  The teacher’s ratings or any other such form of independent assessment given at the same time
  8.  Empirical /statistical validity  The subsequent (later) performance of the testees on a certain task measured by some valid test  The teacher’s ratings or any other such form of independent assessment given later
  9. Summary (Validity)  The test situation  The technique used  important factor in determining the overall validity of any test
  10. 2. Reliability (definitions)  A test administrated to the same candidates on different occasions produces the same results  reliable  Reliability denotes the extent to which the same marks /grades awarded if the same test papers marked by (i) 2 or more ≠ examiners (ii) the same examiner on ≠ occasions
  11. 2. Reliability (affecting factors)  Reliability affected by the size of the sample & the administration of the test  Other factors: (1) test instructions (rubrics) (2) personal factors like motivation & illness (3) scoring of the test (the most important factor- objective tests overcome this problem of marker reliability)
  12. 2. Reliability (measuring methods) (1) Re-administering the same test (the same group of candidates) after a lapse time (2) Administering parallel forms of the test to the same group (tests must be identical in the nature of sampling, difficulty, length & rubrics). If the correlation between 2 tests is high, the test can be termed reliable.
  13. 3. Reliability versus Validity  2 chief criteria for evaluating any test ( an ideal test should be valid & reliable)  The greater the reliability of a test, the less validity it usually has.
  14. 4. Discrimination  An important feature of a test is its capacity: (1) To discriminate among ≠ candidates (2) To reflect the differences in the performances of individuals in a group  The extent of the need to discriminate will vary depending on the purpose of the test
  15. 5. Administration/Practicality  A test must be practicable, i.e. fairly straight forward to administrate or able to administrate (the length of time for administrating, collecting answer sheets, reading instructions).  Another practical consideration concerns the answer sheets and the stationery used.
  16. 6. Test instructions to the candidates  All instructions are clearly written.  Samples are given.  Grammatical terminology should be avoided.
  17. 7. Backwash effects  Def.: the influences of testing on teaching & learning  Positive backwash effect (reading tests development of reading skills)  Negative backwash effect (objective tests reducing learners’ motivation  Implications: influences of tests on the compilation of syllabus & language teaching programmes
  18. B. Types of tests 1. Achievement /attainment tests 2. Proficiency tests 3. Aptitude tests 4. Diagnostic tests
  19. 1. Achievement /attainment tests  Class progress tests, the most widely used types of tests  Achievement tests, formal tests
  20.  Class progress tests  Designed to measure the extent to which Ss have mastered the material taught in the classroom, allowing Ss to show what they have mastered  Used as a teaching device: backwash effects on teaching & motivation  Good tests encouraging Ss to perform well & gain confidence
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