Giáo trình: Marketing Management_ Chapter 07

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Giáo trình: Marketing Management_ Chapter 07

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Tài liệu giáo trình môn Marketing management_ Chapter " Product Decisions", dành cho sinh viên bậc đại học, cao học đang theo học các ngành kinh tế, marketing...

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Nội dung Text: Giáo trình: Marketing Management_ Chapter 07

  1. Product Decisions Chapter 7 7-1
  2. Key Learning Points Elements of brand equity, developing strong brands, and brand extensions. Developing and using perceptual maps to make positioning and repositioning decisions. Global and technology-related issues in positioning and branding. Product line management. Issues in packaging and product design. 7-2
  3. Branding Brands offer or influence: – Consumer’s expectations of quality – Risk reduction – Prestige Branded products are perceived as superior to generic equivalents. Changing the brand name is often a key strategy for troubled brands. – Swissair is one example. 7-3
  4. Product & Service Branding Decisions Key Decisions of Brands Types Corporate Distinct Brands Product Brands Corporate Brand Parent Brands Extensions Co-brands 7-4
  5. Product & Service Decisions of assets “Brand equity is a set (and liabilities) linked to a brand’s name and symbol that adds to (or subtracts from) the value provided by a product or service to a firm or that firm’s customers.” - David A. Aaker 7-5
  6. Figure 7-1: Brand Equity 7-6
  7. Branding Key Brand Equity Aspects – Brand loyalty: repeat buying and positive word of mouth are the strongest measures of a brand’s value. – Brand awareness: familiar brands give consumers confidence. – Perceived quality: quality associations can be category-specific or of the general halo type. – Brand associations: personal, emotional, and other forms. – Other brand assets: patents and trademarks. 7-7
  8. Discussion Questions Think about how perceptions of the Sears, McDonald’s, Enron, IBM, and Levi-Strauss brands have changed over time. 1. What factors influence consumers’ perceptions of brand names? 2. What associations do these brand names engender? 3. If associations are negative, can the brands above be “fixed”? If so, what would you do? 7-8
  9. Branding Building Strong Brands – Create a brand identity. • Implement the value proposition. – Be consistent over time. • Frequent changes in message strategy will confuse consumers. – Track the equity. • Survey awareness, brand associations, and perceptions of quality. – Assign responsibility for brand development activities. – Invest in the brands. 7-9
  10. Branding Brand Extensions – The vast majority of new products are brand extensions. – An established brand name lends instant credibility and positive associations to the line extension. • Not all brand extensions are successful; unsuccessful line extensions can potentially harm the incumbent brand. • Careful consideration of the “fit” of a brand extension with the parent brand is required. 7 - 10
  11. Product & Service Branding Decisions Brand Extension Considerations Key Decisions Transferability of associations Complementarity of the parent and brand extension products Similarity of users Transferability of the symbol 7 - 11
  12. Branding Global Marketing – Two potential meanings: • Any marketing activities undertaken outside of a company’s home market. • Standardization of marketing strategies used to market a product around the world (Leavitt). – Saatchi & Saatchi advertising agency’s rationale for embracing this version of global marketing is based on seven consumer-based factors. 7 - 12
  13. Product & Service Branding Decisions Key Decisions Factors Favoring Consumer Global Marketing Consumer Changing role of convergence women Demographic Higher living convergence standards Decline of the Cultural nuclear family convergence Static populations 7 - 13
  14. Branding Global Marketing – Criticisms of the Leavitt and S&S approach to global marketing: • Concept is counterintuitive to the marketing or customer orientation, and instead is more consistent with a product orientation. • Ignores differences in customer behavior specific to local markets or different countries. 7 - 14
  15. Product & Service Procter & Gamble’s Decisions Definition of a Global Brand “To obtain clear and consistent brand equity across geographic markets, a brand should be positioned the same, have the same formulation, provide the same benefits, and have a consistent advertising message.” - Russell S. Winer 7 - 15
  16. Branding Global Branding – Using the same brand name in all countries may allow a firm to establish similar equity in a brand worldwide. – Some brand names can not be used everywhere. • Name translations are sometimes unfavorable. • Local brands may be powerful competitors. 7 - 16
  17. Product & Service Branding Decisions Key Decisions Valuable Brands World’s Most 1. Coca-Cola 6. Nokia 2. Microsoft 7. Disney 3. IBM 8. McDonald’s 4. GE 9. Marlboro 5. Intel 10. Mercedes 7 - 17
  18. Branding Branding for High-Tech Products – Particularly important for high-tech products in the maturity or decline stage of the life cycle. – Difficult due to the number of firms involved with production, distribution, and support. – Successful high-tech branding campaigns deemphasize product features and focus more on benefits or broader goals. – Companies that sell components or ingredients invisible to consumers can also benefit from branding campaigns. • Co-branding in high-tech was popularized by Intel. 7 - 18
  19. Branding Dimensions of brand Branding Issues personality – Sincerity: honesty, Brand Personality wholesomeness Brand-Person – Excitement: daring, spirited Relationships – Competence: reliable, Retail Branding successful Issues – Sophistication: upper class Building Digital – Ruggedness: tough, Brands outdoorsy 7 - 19
  20. Branding People find comfort and Branding Issues satisfaction in their relationships with those Brand Personality brands to which they Brand-Person are loyal. Relationships Ethnographic research and depth interviews Retail Branding provide data on the Issues brand-person Building Digital relationship that is Brands useful in creating ads. 7 - 20
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