Xem 1-20 trên 724 kết quả Annotations
  • Create your own natural language training corpus for machine learning. Whether you’re working with English, Chinese, or any other natural language, this hands-on book guides you through a proven annotation development cycle—the process of adding metadata to your training corpus to help ML algorithms work more efficiently. You don’t need any programming or linguistics experience to get started.

    pdf97p hoa_can 26-01-2013 49 8   Download

  • One of the central challenges in sentimentbased text categorization is that not every portion of a document is equally informative for inferring the overall sentiment of the document. Previous research has shown that enriching the sentiment labels with human annotators’ “rationales” can produce substantial improvements in categorization performance (Zaidan et al., 2007).

    pdf6p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 27 3   Download

  • As researchers seek to apply their machine learning algorithms to new problems, corpus annotation is increasingly gaining importance in the NLP community. But since the community currently has no general paradigm, no textbook that covers all the issues (though Wilcock’s book published in Dec 2009 covers some basic ones very well), and no accepted standards, setting up and performing small-, medium-, and large-scale annotation projects remains something of an art. To attend, no special expertise in computation or linguistics is required. ...

    pdf1p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 34 3   Download

  • We address the problem of part-of-speech tagging for English data from the popular microblogging service Twitter. We develop a tagset, annotate data, develop features, and report tagging results nearing 90% accuracy. The data and tools have been made available to the research community with the goal of enabling richer text analysis of Twitter and related social media data sets.

    pdf6p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 41 3   Download

  • Broad-coverage semantic annotations for training statistical learners are only available for a handful of languages. Previous approaches to cross-lingual transfer of semantic annotations have addressed this problem with encouraging results on a small scale. In this paper, we scale up previous efforts by using an automatic approach to semantic annotation that does not rely on a semantic ontology for the target language.

    pdf6p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 31 3   Download

  • It is usually assumed that the kind of noise existing in annotated data is random classification noise. Yet there is evidence that differences between annotators are not always random attention slips but could result from different biases towards the classification categories, at least for the harder-to-decide cases. Under an annotation generation model that takes this into account, there is a hazard that some of the training instances are actually hard cases with unreliable annotations.

    pdf8p hongphan_1 14-04-2013 27 3   Download

  • Manually annotated corpora are valuable but scarce resources, yet for many annotation tasks such as treebanking and sequence labeling there exist multiple corpora with different and incompatible annotation guidelines or standards. This seems to be a great waste of human efforts, and it would be nice to automatically adapt one annotation standard to another. We present a simple yet effective strategy that transfers knowledge from a differently annotated corpus to the corpus with desired annotation.

    pdf9p hongphan_1 14-04-2013 38 3   Download

  • This paper shows the results of an experiment in dialogue segmentation. In this experiment, segmentation was done on a level of analysis similar to adjacency pairs. The method of annotation was somewhat novel: volunteers were invited to participate over the Web, and their responses were aggregated using a simple voting method. Though volunteers received a minimum of training, the aggregated responses of the group showed very high agreement with expert opinion.

    pdf8p hongphan_1 14-04-2013 34 3   Download

  • Traditional Active Learning (AL) techniques assume that the annotation of each datum costs the same. This is not the case when annotating sequences; some sequences will take longer than others. We show that the AL technique which performs best depends on how cost is measured. Applying an hourly cost model based on the results of an annotation user study, we approximate the amount of time necessary to annotate a given sentence. This model allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of AL sampling methods in terms of time spent in annotation. ...

    pdf4p hongphan_1 15-04-2013 46 3   Download

  • In this paper, we propose a linguistically annotated reordering model for BTG-based statistical machine translation. The model incorporates linguistic knowledge to predict orders for both syntactic and non-syntactic phrases. The linguistic knowledge is automatically learned from source-side parse trees through an annotation algorithm. We empirically demonstrate that the proposed model leads to a significant improvement of 1.55% in the BLEU score over the baseline reordering model on the NIST MT-05 Chinese-to-English translation task. ...

    pdf4p hongphan_1 15-04-2013 38 3   Download

  • The Zohar: annotations to the Ashlag Commentary elucidates Kabbalah’s primary source of wisdom-The Book of Zohar (The Book of Radiance). This is a book to read with patience, contemplating each sentence as one unveils its meanings. As the text covers its theme-the revelation of the Creator-from many different angles, it allows us to find the phrases or words that will carry us into the depths of this profound and timeless wisdom.

    pdf520p mymi0809 18-01-2013 43 2   Download

  • We present CS NIPER (Corpus Sniper), a tool that implements (i) a web-based multiuser scenario for identifying and annotating non-canonical grammatical constructions in large corpora based on linguistic queries and (ii) evaluation of annotation quality by measuring inter-rater agreement.

    pdf6p nghetay_1 07-04-2013 31 2   Download

  • We present a new edition of the Google Books Ngram Corpus, which describes how often words and phrases were used over a period of five centuries, in eight languages; it reflects 6% of all books ever published. This new edition introduces syntactic annotations: words are tagged with their part-of-speech, and headmodifier relationships are recorded. The annotations are produced automatically with statistical models that are specifically adapted to historical text.

    pdf6p nghetay_1 07-04-2013 33 2   Download

  • In this paper, we introduce a corpus of consumer reviews from the rateitall and the eopinions websites annotated with opinion-related information. We present a two-level annotation scheme. In the first stage, the reviews are analyzed at the sentence level for (i) relevancy to a given topic, and (ii) expressing an evaluation about the topic.

    pdf10p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 33 2   Download

  • The Manually Annotated Sub-Corpus (MASC) project provides data and annotations to serve as the base for a communitywide annotation effort of a subset of the American National Corpus. The MASC infrastructure enables the incorporation of contributed annotations into a single, usable format that can then be analyzed as it is or ported to any of a variety of other formats.

    pdf6p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 36 2   Download

  • Marking up search queries with linguistic annotations such as part-of-speech tags, capitalization, and segmentation, is an important part of query processing and understanding in information retrieval systems. Due to their brevity and idiosyncratic structure, search queries pose a challenge to existing NLP tools. To address this challenge, we propose a probabilistic approach for performing joint query annotation. First, we derive a robust set of unsupervised independent annotations, using queries and pseudo-relevance feedback. ...

    pdf10p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 38 2   Download

  • We describe an annotation tool developed to assist in the creation of multimodal actioncommunication corpora from on-line massively multi-player games, or MMGs. MMGs typically involve groups of players (5-30) who control their avatars1, perform various activities (questing, competing, fighting, etc.) and communicate via chat or speech using assumed screen names. We collected a corpus of 48 group quests in Second Life that jointly involved 206 players who generated over 30,000 messages in quasisynchronous chat during approximately 140 hours of recorded action. ...

    pdf9p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 48 2   Download

  • Dependency parsing is a central NLP task. In this paper we show that the common evaluation for unsupervised dependency parsing is highly sensitive to problematic annotations. We show that for three leading unsupervised parsers (Klein and Manning, 2004; Cohen and Smith, 2009; Spitkovsky et al., 2010a), a small set of parameters can be found whose modification yields a significant improvement in standard evaluation measures. These parameters correspond to local cases where no linguistic consensus exists as to the proper gold annotation. ...

    pdf10p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 46 2   Download

  • In many natural language applications, there is a need to enrich syntactical parse trees. We present a statistical tree annotator augmenting nodes with additional information. The annotator is generic and can be applied to a variety of applications. We report 3 such applications in this paper: predicting function tags; predicting null elements; and predicting whether a tree constituent is projectable in machine translation. Our function tag prediction system outperforms significantly published results. ...

    pdf9p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 29 2   Download

  • The written form of Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), differs quite a bit from the spoken dialects of Arabic, which are the true “native” languages of Arabic speakers used in daily life. However, due to MSA’s prevalence in written form, almost all Arabic datasets have predominantly MSA content. We present the Arabic Online Commentary Dataset, a 52M-word monolingual dataset rich in dialectal content, and we describe our long-term annotation effort to identify the dialect level (and dialect itself) in each sentence of the dataset. ...

    pdf5p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 49 2   Download


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