Enzyme structure and function

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  • Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. A protein is simply a polypeptide composed of amino acids linked by a peptide bond, and the term generally, but not always, refers to the folded conformation. To understand how an enzyme functions, including its binding and functional properties, it is necessary to know the properties of the amino acids and how the amino acids are linked together, including the torsion angles of the bonds and the space occupied, and the interactions of the atoms leading to the final conformations of the folded protein.

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  • The book is intended to provide a sound basis for enzyme reactor design based on kinetic principles, and give an updated vision of the potentials and limitations of enzyme biocatalysis, especially with respect to recent applications in processes of organic synthesis. The book is structured in the form of a textbook that goes from basic principles of enzyme structure and function to reactor design for homogeneous systems with soluble enzymes, and heterogeneous systems with insolubilized enzymes.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document BRS Biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics presents the following contents: Organic chemistry review; protein structure and function; enzymes, biochemistry of digestion; glycolysis; the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative metabolism; glycogen metabolism; gluconeogenesis and the maintenance of blood glucose levels,... and other contents.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document Textbook of biochemistry presents the following contents: Biochemical perspective to medicine, amino acids structure and properties, proteins structure and function, enzymology general concepts and enzyme kinetics, chemistry of lipids,... Invite you to consult.

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  • Living processes consists almost entirely of biochemical reactions. Without catalysts these reactions would not occur fast enough to sustain life.How does an enzyme do this? ------ because enzyme is a catalytic protein-a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document Harper’s illustrated biochemistry presents the following contents: Structures and functions of proteins and enzyme; bioenergetics and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids; metabolism of proteins and amino acids.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Minireview cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Influence of metabolic network structure and function on enzyme evolution...

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document Lippincott illustrated reviews flash cards biochemistry presents the following contents: Protein structure and function, bioenergetics and carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism.

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  • A novel plant protein isolated from the underground bulbs of Scadoxus multiflorus, xylanase and a-amylase inhibitor protein (XAIP), inhibits two structurally and functionally unrelated enzymes: xylanase and a-amylase. The mature protein contains 272 amino acid residues which show sequence identities of 48% to the plant chitinase hevamine and 36% to xylanase inhibitor protein-I, a double-headed inhibitor of GH10 and GH11 xylanases.

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  • Bacterial l-asparaginases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of l-asparagine to aspartic acid. For the past 30 years, these enzymes have been used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia.

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  • Cholesterol oxidase is a bacterial FAD-containing flavooxidase that catalyzes the first reaction in cholesterol catabolism. Indeed, this enzyme catalyzes two reactions: the oxidation of the C3 -OH group of cholesterol (and other sterols) to give cholest-5-en-3-one; and its isomerization to cholest-4-en-3-one. In the past several years, the structural and functional characterization of choles-terol oxidase has been developed together with its application as a biological tool.

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  • The structure of the Mg 2+ -dependent enzyme human phosphoserine phosphatase (HPSP) was exploited to examine the structural and functional role of the divalent cation in the active site of phosphatases. Most interesting is the biochemical observation that a Ca 2+ ion inhibits the activity of HPSP, even in the presence of added Mg 2+ .The sixfold coordinated Mg 2+ ion present in the active site of HPSP under normal physiological conditions, was replaced by a Ca 2+ ion by using a crystallization conditionwith high concentration of CaCl2(0.7M). ...

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  • Although belonging to the widely investigated peroxidase superfamily, lactoperoxidase (LPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) share structural and functional features that make them peculiar with respect to other enzymes of the same group. A survey of the available literature on their catalytic intermediates enabled us to ask some questions that remained unanswered. These questions concern controver-sial features of theLPOandMPOcatalytic cycle, suchas the existence of Compound I and Compound II isomers and the identification of their spectroscopic properties....

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  • We have previously reported that two trypsin-like enzymes, acrosin and spermosin, play key roles in sperm penetration through the vitelline coat of the ascidian (Urochordata) Halocynthia roretzi[Sawadaet al. (1984),J. Biol. Chem.259, 2900±2904; Sawadaet al. (1984), Dev. Biol.105, 246±249]. Here, we show the amino-acid sequence of the ascidian preprospermosin, which is deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the isolated cDNA clone.

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  • Lecture Biology: Concepts and connections, chapter 5 - The working cell. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Membrane structure and function, energy and the cell, how enzymes function.

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  • We live in the age of biology—the human and many other organisms’ genomes have been sequenced and we are starting to understand the function of the metabolic machinery responsible for life on our planet. Thousands of new genes have been discovered, many of these coding for enzymes of yet unknown function. Understanding the kinetic behavior of an enzyme provides clues to its possible physiological role. From a biotechnological point of view, knowledge of the catalytic properties of an enzyme is required for the design of immobilized enzyme-based industrial processes.

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  • LIFE ON EARTH ULTIMATELY DEPENDS ON ENERGY derived from the sun. Photosynthesis is the only process of biological importance that can harvest this energy. In addition, a large fraction of the planet’s energy resources results from photosynthetic activity in either recent or ancient times (fossil fuels). This chapter introduces the basic physical principles that underlie photosynthetic energy storage and the current understanding of the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus (Blankenship 2002). The term photosynthesis means literally “synthesis using light.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document Lehninger principles of biochemistry presents the following contents: The foundations of biochemistry, structure and catalysis (water, amino acids, peptides, and proteins; the three dimensional structure of proteins, protein function, enzymes, carbohydrates and glycobiology, carbohydrates and glycobiology).

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  • - Polysaccharides are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. - Some polysaccharides serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells. - Other polysaccharides serve as building material for structures that protect the cell or the whole organism. - The architecture and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and by the positions of its glycosidic linkages.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document BRS biochemistry molecular biology and genetics presents the following contents: Fuel metabolism and nutrition - basic principles; basic aspects of biochemistry - organic chemistry, acid–base chemistry, amino acids, protein structure and function and enzyme kinetics; gene expression (transcription), synthesis of proteins (translation), and regulation of gene expression;...

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