Molecules and cells

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  • Lecture Campbell biology: Concepts and connections (Seventh edition) - Chapter 3: The molecules of cells. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Introduction to organic compounds, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.

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  • The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was carried out between 2001 and 2005 to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and to establish the basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems and their contributions to human well-being.

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  • Iron overload in the liver may occur in clinical conditions such as hemo-chromatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and may lead to the deterior-ation of the normal liver architecture by mechanisms not well understood. Although a relationship between the expression of ICAM-1, and classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, and iron over-load has been reported, no relationship has been identified between iron overload and the expression of unconventional MHC class I molecules....

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  • Several new aspects have been highlighted: for example, a novel role for lipids as receptors which drive protein sorting, the diversity of the sorting events that occur at the level of the Golgi apparatus, and the cross talk between exocytosis and autophagy. Moreover, an interesting example of how the knowledge of these pathways is exploited to generate novel secretory routes to direct the synthesis of bio-molecules in “cell factories” is discussed.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Cambridge international AS and A level - Biology coursebook" has contents: Cell structure, biological molecules, enzymes, cell membranes and transport, the mitotic cell cycle, nucleic acids and protein synthesis, transport in plants,... and other contents.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: "Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infects human lung epithelial cells and induces gene expression of cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules...

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  • About 400 years ago, the invention of telescopes and microscopes not only extended our sense of seeing but also revolutionized our perception of the world. Extending this perception further and further has since been the driving force for major scientific developments. Local probe techniques extend our sense of touching into the micro- and nanoworld and in thisway provide complementary newinsight into theseworlds with microscopic techniques.

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  • We report here a new method for inhibition of RNA viruses induced by dsDNA. We demonstrated that both long dsDNA molecules and short interfering DNA with a sequence complementary to that of viral RNA inhibited tobacco mosaic virus expression and prevented virus spread. Also, the expression of the HIV-1 gp41 gene in HeLa cells was inhibited by com-plementary short interfering DNA.

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  • In haem-regulated phosphodiesterase (PDE) fromEscheri-chia coli(EcDOS), haem is bound to the PAS domain, and the redox state of the haem iron regulates catalysis by the PDEdomain.We generatedmutants ofAsp40, which forms a hydrogen bondwithHis77 (a proximal haemaxial ligand) via twowater molecules, and a salt bridge withArg85 at the protein surface. The redox potential of haem was markedly increased from67 mVvs. the standardhydrogenelectrode in the wild-type enzyme to 95 mV and 114 mV in the Ala and Asn mutants, respectively. ...

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  • The activity of the full-length hammerhead ribozyme requires a tertiary interaction between its distal loops leading to the closure of the molecule and its stabilization in the active conformation.

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  • Eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases direct RNA pseudouridylation and bind H⁄ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), which, in turn, may act as precursors of microRNA-like molecules. In humans, loss of pseudouridine synthase activity causes dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a complex systemic disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility, failures in ribosome biogen-esis and telomere stability, and defects in stem cell formation.

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  • In recent years major progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism and structure of catalytic RNA molecules, and we are now beginning to understand ribozymes well enough to turn them into useful tools. Work in our laboratory has focused on the development of twin ribozymes for site-specific RNA sequence alteration. To this end, we followed a strategy that relies on the combination of two ribozyme units into one molecule (hence dubbed twin ribozyme).

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  • To gain insight in the subcellular localization of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF4) we analyzed GFP chimeras of full-length TRAF4 and various deletionmutants derived thereof.While TRAF4–GFP (T4– GFP) was clearlylocalized in the cytoplasm, the N-terminal deletion mutant, T4(259–470), comprising the TRAF domain of the molecule, and a C-terminal deletion mutant consisting mainlyof the RING and zinc finger domains of TRAF4 were both localized predominantlyto the nucleus....

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  • Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles.[1] The metabolome represents the collection of all metabolites in a biological cell, tissue, organ or organism, which are the end products of cellular processes.

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  • Cell membranes act as barriers to most, but not all, molecules. The development of a cell membrane that could allow some materials to pass while constraining the movement of other molecules was a major step in the evolution of the cell. Cell membranes are differentially (or semi-) permeable barriers separating the inner cellular environment from the outer cellular (or external) environment.

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  • A need for a book on immunology which primarily focuses on the needs of medical and clinical research students was recognized. This book is relatively short and contains topics considered relevant to the understanding of human immune system and its role in health and diseases. Immunology is the study of our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and our responses to them. These invaders include viruses, bacteria, protozoa or even larger parasites.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 106. Plasma Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders: Introduction The plasma cell disorders are monoclonal neoplasms related to each other by virtue of their development from common progenitors in the B lymphocyte lineage. Multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, primary amyloidosis (Chap. 324), and the heavy chain diseases comprise this group and may be designated by a variety of synonyms such as monoclonal gammopathies, paraproteinemias, plasma cell dyscrasias, and dysproteinemias.

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  • Twenty-five years ago, Georges Köhler and César Milstein invented a means of cloning individual antibodies, thus opening up the way for tremendous advances in the fields of cell biology and clinical diagnostics (1). However, in spite of their early promise, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were largely unsuccessful as therapeutic reagents resulting from insufficient activation of human effector functions and immune reactions against proteins of murine origin.

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  • PLANT CELLS ARE SEPARATED from their environment by a plasma membrane that is only two lipid molecules thick. This thin layer separates a relatively constant internal environment from highly variable external surroundings. In addition to forming a hydrophobic barrier to diffusion, the membrane must facilitate and continuously regulate the inward and outward traffic of selected molecules and ions as the cell takes up nutrients, exports wastes, and regulates its turgor pressure.

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  • PLANT BIOLOGISTS MAY BE FORGIVEN for taking abiding satisfaction in the fact that Mendel’s classic studies on the role of heritable factors in development were carried out on a flowering plant: the garden pea. The heritable factors that Mendel discovered, which control such characters as flower color, flower position, pod shape, stem length, seed color, and seed shape, came to be called genes. Genes are the DNA sequences that encode the RNA molecules directly involved in making the enzymes and structural proteins of the cell.

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