Reactions taking place

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  • Problem 1.1a: For a reaction AB (rate expression: rA = kCA ) , taking place in an isothermal tubular reactor, starting with the mass balance equation and assuming plug flow, derive an expression for calculating the reactor volume in terms of the molar flow rate of reactant ‘A’.

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  • Enzymes that function within plants, animals, and microorganisms are fundamental to life, and their contributions to metabolic pathways and processes have been studied extensively. For over 100 years there has been interest in what today is called ecological or environmental enzymology. This aspect of enzymology originates from the work of Woods, who, in 1899, wrote about the survival and function in soil of plant peroxidases following their release from decaying plant roots.

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  • API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed. Neither API nor any of API’s employees, subcontractors, consultants, committees, or other assignees make any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained herein, or assume any liability or responsibility for any use, or the results of such use, of any information or process disclosed in this publication.

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  • Introduction: The evolution of hydrogen gas at the cathode is one of the reactions most frequently occurring in industrial cells. Besides the obvious case of water electrolyzers, hydrogen evolution occurs at the cathode of chlor-alkali and chlorate cells, which are among the most intensive electrochemical processes. On the other hand, hydrogen liberation is the cathodic process in cells containing aqueous solutions or protonated solvents where the wanted reaction takes place at the anode.

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  • Introduction: The term NEMCA refers to nonfaradaic electrochemical modification of catalytic activity. The NEMCA effect is also known as electrochemical promotion or electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) or electropromotion. It is the effect observed on the rates and selectivities of catalytic reactions taking place on electronically conductive catalysts deposited on ionic (or mixed ionic–electronic) supports upon application of electric current or potential (typically 72 V) between the catalyst and a second (counter or auxiliary) electrode also deposited on the same support. ...

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  • content decreased (Agblevor et al. 1994). The equivalents of chlorine per equivalent of alkali or alkaline earth metals increased from 3.4 to 8.5 during this filtration. This suggests that the residual inorganics may be present as chlorides and that much of the chlorine may be in solution. Chloride ions in solution will have an adverse effect on corrosion of many metals, including stainless steels such as SS304. Compared to coal and many crude oils, biomass has a low sulfur content.

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  • Introduction: Most electrochemical reactions take place at the interface of two or more phases. Hence the area of reaction plays a vital role in determining the efficiency of an electrochemical process, just like in any surface reaction. There are several ways to increase the available area for reaction in an electrochemical cell: multiple electrodes are stacked alternatively, bipolar electrodes are used, and, sometimes, the reaction surface is modified by etching or coating with large surface area particles. ...

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  • The fulfilment of an incentive programme is the travel experience itself, but this is preceded by a motivational campaign, beginning with a launch event. Planning cycles vary depending on the industry sector of the provider. Approximately a third of incentive campaigns start six months before the trip takes place; the remaining two thirds start between six and 18 months ahead. Measurable objectives are set by the incentive providers – usually the company’s sales or marketing director, often working in tandem with a specialist incentive travel agency.

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  • Chemical reactions take place due to the redistribution of electron density among the reacting partners. Focusing on changes in electron density, which accompany the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, instead of the changes in the wave function accompanying them, allows us to use the ‘‘classical’’ three-dimensional language. Conceptual density functional theory (DFT) quantifies the possible responses of the system to various changes in density.

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  • Although based on a limited set of examples, the Boeing case studies suggest that, while Lean thinking is redefining the manufacturing landscape and the way production activities take place on the factory floor, the regulatory system -- which grew up and evolved regulating a batch and queue, mass production environment -- continues to be structured and operate with batch and queue processes in mind and operate itself as a batch and queue enterprise.

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  • Signal transduction pathways are often embedded in com-plex networks, which result from interactions between pathways and feedback circuitry. In order to understand such networks, qualitative information on which inter-actions take place and quantitative data on their strength become essential.

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  • DYRK1A is a dual-specificity protein kinase that autophosphorylates a conserved tyrosine residue in the activation loop but phosphorylates exoge-nous substrates only at serine or threonine residues. Tyrosine autophospho-rylation of DYRKs is a one-off event that takes place during translation and induces the activation of the kinase.

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  • Receptors should be properly analysed in view of the microenvironment in which they are embedded. Therefore, the concept of ‘receptosome’ was for-mulated to the complex interactions taking place between receptors and other proteins at the plasma membrane level, and to explain very heteroge-neous or divergent cellular responses to common epigenetic factors and modifications to the extracellular environment.

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  • The fermentation of cassava which normally takes 3-4 days during village processing can be shortened to 24h by seeding a fresh pulp with cassava juice 4 days old. In the work described here, a further attempt has been made to elucidate the nature of biochemical reactions taking place during fermentation, and to establish the optimum conditions which could be utilised in a modern industry based on this process.

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  • THE CONVERSION OF SOLAR ENERGY to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process that includes electron transport and photosynthetic carbon metabolism (see Chapters 7 and 8). Earlier discussions of the photochemical and biochemical reactions of photosynthesis should not overshadow the fact that, under natural conditions, the photosynthetic process takes place in intact organisms that are continuously responding to internal and external changes. This chapter addresses some of the photosynthetic responses of the intact leaf to its environment....

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  • Generalities: The formation of gaseous O2 at the anode of an electrolytic cell containing an aqueous electrolyte solution is the most frequent electrode reaction. It has immense practical implication because it always accompanies the electrolytic production of H2 in water electrolyzers, the cathodic deposition of metals in metal electrowinning processes, and the application of a cathodic current in cathodic protection operations, and it takes place at the negative pole of metal–air power sources upon recharging. ...

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  • Aldehydes and Ketones – Form acetals and ketals respectively with normal methanol-containing reagents – Water formed in this reaction will then be titrated to give erroneously high water results – With aldehydes a second side reaction can take place, consuming water, which can lead to sample water content being underestimated – Replacing methanol with another solvent can solve the difficulties (commercial reagents are widely available)

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  • Car-sharing can be seen as an effective measure for reducing the burden of automobile traffic on the environment. The automobiles belonging to Swedish car-sharing organizations are often newer and have more satisfactory environmental and safety characteristics than Swedish cars in general. Studies have also shown that a member of an average car-sharing scheme drives only about two-thirds as much as earlier and that a shared car, through being used more effectively, takes the place of some five privately owned cars and as many parking spaces.

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  • Before moving on to the summary analysis of the stylised facts, it is useful to look at the discussion on the European fiscal framework and the events taking place in 2002 through the lenses of capital markets. This is done in this sub-section in order to identify some working hypotheses on the reaction of capital markets to the discussion on the Stability and Growth Pact. Therefore we screened the weekly notes and newsletters of four major investment banks for 2002. 4 First, all policy events mentioned above were reported and discussed in some of the regular newsletters.

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  • Two other sets of concepts that generate strong, and sometimes conflicting, reactions are the notion of what is 'public' (the public sector, the state, action that takes place in public) versus what is 'private' (of interest only to the individual/family, the private sector); and the meanings associated with money. We suggest that donation is a multi-layered process with each layer having its own public and private meanings. It may therefore be more helpful to think of public and private as being complementary and overlapping rather than in opposition (see Box 4.3).

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