The observer pattern

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  • JavaScript is at a turning point. The language and those who program with it have matured. People are starting to realize that it is a complex subject, worthy of further study. Design patterns have been used in programming for years. They were first formally documented in Design Patterns by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides (affectionately known as the Gang of Four) and have been applied to countless object-oriented languages. Part of the appeal of design patterns is that they can be used uniformly over many different languages and syntaxes.

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  • Welcome to MapReduce Design Patterns! This book will be unique in some ways and familiar in others. First and foremost, this book is obviously about design patterns, which are templates or general guides to solving problems. We took a look at other design patterns books that have been written in the past as inspiration, particularly Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, by Gamma et al. (1995), which is commonly referred to as “The Gang of Four” book. For each pattern, you’ll see a template that we reuse over and over that we loosely based off of their book.

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  • Design patterns are reusable solutions to commonly occurring problems in software design. They are both exciting and a fascinating topic to explore in any programming language. One reason for this is that they help us build upon the combined experience of many developers that came before us and ensure we structure our code in an optimized way, meeting the needs of problems we're attempting to solve. Design patterns also provide us a common vocabulary to describe solutions.

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  • This book isn't an introduction to object-oriented technology or design. Many books already do a good job of that. This book assumes you are reasonably proficient in at least one object-oriented programming language, and you should have some experience in object-oriented design as well. You definitely shouldn't have to rush to the nearest dictionary the moment we mention "types" and "polymorphism," or "interface" as opposed to "implementation” inheritance.

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  • The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Introduction to patterns, the abstraction? Occurrence pattern, the general hierarchy pattern, the player? Role pattern, the singleton pattern, the observer pattern, the delegation pattern, the adapter pattern,... Inviting you refer.

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  • This paper explores techniques to take advantage of the fundamental difference in structure between hidden Markov models (HMM) and hierarchical hidden Markov models (HHMM). The HHMM structure allows repeated parts of the model to be merged together. A merged model takes advantage of the recurring patterns within the hierarchy, and the clusters that exist in some sequences of observations, in order to increase the extraction accuracy.

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  • ICT 5 Web Development - Chapter 7: MVC & PHP Frameworks Overview of Design Patterns, What is MVC architecture? PHP Frameworks, Why do we need Patterns? Structure of a design pattern, Class Diagram for the Observer Pattern.

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  • Mining bilingual data (including bilingual sentences and terms1) from the Web can benefit many NLP applications, such as machine translation and cross language information retrieval. In this paper, based on the observation that bilingual data in many web pages appear collectively following similar patterns, an adaptive pattern-based bilingual data mining method is proposed.

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  • Recent advances in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) offer a significant new approach to studying semantic representations in humans by making it possible to directly observe brain activity while people comprehend words and sentences. In this study, we investigate how humans comprehend adjective-noun phrases (e.g. strong dog) while their neural activity is recorded. Classification analysis shows that the distributed pattern of neural activity contains sufficient signal to decode differences among phrases. ...

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  • The primary question is whether the strong pattern of variation in a continuous single direction or not (e.g. an increasing degree of symmetry with decreasing site age would indicate increased cultural and technological complexity). However, the results do not fully demonstrate a significant relationship. In other words, symmetrical homogeneity has been observed.

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  • Students should note that Congress generally prohibits the use of appropriated funds to employ non-citizens within the United States. That restriction is discussed on the USAJobs Web site. Students who are not U.S. citizens are eligible for the student observer program. However, they should recognize that they are generally not eligible to be hired as employees after graduation. We have a limited number of slots and cannot hire all of the students who would be successful interns. Students are welcome to decline our offers.

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  • Cimate change is one of the most important global environmental problems facing the world today. Evidence of a changing climate is all around us, from rising sea level to retreating mountain glaciers, melting Arctic sea ice, lengthening growing seasons, shifting animal migration patterns, and other changes. Such changes are already having adverse impacts on people’s well-being, as climate change amplifies the effects of other environmental and socioeconomic changes and problems and produces new effects of its own.

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  • he Theory of the Gene. The book summarizes theoretical conclusions that Morgan has drawn from more than fifteen years of empirical work. The geneticist had initially set out to challenge Mendel’s principles of heredity, but he writes that his work on the chromosomal transmission of genetic characteristics in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has instead confirmed them. His studies have, in addition, begun to identify the physiological bases of observed patterns of genetic inheritance.

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  • This study presents the continuous GPS network in Vietnam and the results of study on time variations of the total electron content (TEC) in the South East Asian equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) for the 2006-2013 period. In each year we observe a semiannual pattern of amplitude of the EIA crests with its maximum amplitude at equinox.

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  • The majority of the lichen species were hygrophytic and mesophytic. In addition, nitrophytic species were more frequently observed than acidophytes. Temperate and suboceanic species were the most common.

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  • A fundamental approach in signal processing is to design a statistical generative model of the observed signals. The components in the generative model then give a representation of the data. Such a representation can then be used in such tasks as compression, denoising, and pattern recognition. This approach is also useful from a neuroscientific viewpoint, for modeling the properties of neurons in primary sensory areas. In this chapter, we consider a certain class of widely used signals, which we call natural images....

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  • Chapter 21 Patterns in Species Richness Why the number of species varies from place to place, and from time to time, are questions that present themselves not only to ecologists but to anybody who observes and ponders the natural world. They are interesting questions in their own right .

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  • Monetary Policy , the Banking System, and Short -term Money Instrusments Measuring market concentration I define local housing markets as Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), Census Bureau approximations of local housing markets defined by observed commuting patterns.35 The SAT data that I use to measure student outcomes are taken from the early 1990s. Consequently, I use 1990 MSA definitions and draw demographic characteristics of each MSA from the 1990 Census.

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  • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADER/FOLLOWER CONGRUENCE AND FOLLOWER COMMITMENT There are three plausible explanations for the pattern of findings presented here. First, it may be that school and district policies are not responsible for a large share of the extant across-school variation in student performance. We would not then expect to observe effectiveness sorting, regardless of its extent, in the distribution of student SAT scores. Second, the number of school districts may not capture variation in parents’ ability to exercise Tiebout choice....

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  • APPLICATIONS OF ICA Independent Component Analysis. Aapo Hyv¨ rinen, Juha Karhunen, Erkki Oja a Copyright  2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBNs: 0-471-40540-X (Hardback); 0-471-22131-7 (Electronic) 21 Feature Extraction by ICA A fundamental approach in signal processing is to design a statistical generative model of the observed signals. The components in the generative model then give a representation of the data. Such a representation can then be used in such tasks as compression, denoising, and pattern recognition.

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