Xem 1-20 trên 1262 kết quả Breast cancer
  • This second edition of Breast Cancer continues the tradition of the M. D.Anderson Cancer Care Series. The book is oriented towards the needs of clinicians who manage breast cancer at every stage of the disease. Chapters are written by experts with a strong knowledge of research findings who also are active in the clinic and understand the practical needs of the patient and her physician.

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  • Since the first edition of Breast Cancer: Prognosis, Treatment and Prevention was published there has been a tremendous amount of new information related to the basic and clinical applications of this disease which can affect 1 of 8 people in the USA and 1 of 12 in European countries.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 86. Breast Cancer Breast Cancer: Introduction Breast cancer is a malignant proliferation of epithelial cells lining the ducts or lobules of the breast. In the year 2007, about 180,510 cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,910 deaths occurred in the United States. Epithelial malignancies of the breast are the most common cause of cancer in women (excluding skin cancer), accounting for about one-third of all cancer in women.

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  • The last three decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the understanding and treatment of breast cancer. As a result, starting shortly before the 1990s, a persistent decrease in breast cancer mortality has been documented, primarily in the United States and in several European countries. Breast cancer, however, remains an important health problem. In this book, which is mainly dedicated to nuclear medicine, experts have thoroughly reviewed the achievements made in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of this disease.

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  • The committee is grateful for the contribution of participants at its three public meetings. The presentations and discussions at these meeting were valuable in informing the committee about relevant research findings, issues of interest in the research community, the perspectives of advocacy organizations, and the concerns of individuals with breast cancer and their families. The agendas for these meetings appear in Appendix A.

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  • Endocrine Therapy Normal breast tissue is estrogen-dependent. Both primary and metastatic breast cancer may retain this phenotype. The best means of ascertaining whether a breast cancer is hormone-dependent is through analysis of estrogen and progesterone receptor levels on the tumor. Tumors that are positive for the estrogen receptor and negative for the progesterone receptor have a response rate of ~30%. Tumors that have both receptors have a response rate approaching 70%. If neither receptor is present, the objective response rates are ...

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  • Staging Correct staging of breast cancer patients is of extraordinary importance. Not only does it permit an accurate prognosis, but in many cases therapeutic decisionmaking is based largely on the TNM (primary tumor, regional nodes, metastasis) classification (Table 86-1). Comparison with historic series should be undertaken with caution, as the staging has changed several times in the past 20 years. The current staging is complex and results in significant changes in outcome by stage as compared with prior staging systems.

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  • Breast Cancer: Treatment Primary Breast Cancer Breast-conserving treatments, consisting of the removal of the primary tumor by some form of lumpectomy with or without irradiating the breast, result in a survival that is as good as (or slightly superior to) that after extensive surgical procedures, such as mastectomy or modified radical mastectomy, with or without further irradiation. Postlumpectomy breast irradiation greatly reduces the risk of recurrence in the breast.

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  • Table 86-2 5-Year Survival Rate for Breast Cancer by Stage Stage 5-Year Survival, % 0 99 I 92 IIA 82 IIB 65 IIIA 47 IIIB 44 IV 14 Source: Modified from data of the National Cancer Institute—Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Estrogen and progesterone receptor status are of prognostic significance. Tumors that lack either or both of these receptors are more likely to recur than tumors that have them. Several measures of tumor growth rate correlate with early relapse. S-phase analysis using flow cytometry is the most accurate measure.

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  • One approach—so-called neoadjuvant chemotherapy—involves the administration of adjuvant therapy before definitive surgery and radiation therapy. Because the objective response rates of patients with breast cancer to systemic therapy in this setting exceed 75%, many patients will be "downstaged" and may become candidates for breast-conserving therapy. However, overall survival has not been improved using this approach.

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  • Noninvasive Breast Cancer Breast cancer develops as a series of molecular changes in the epithelial cells that lead to ever more malignant behavior. Increased use of mammography has led to more frequent diagnosis of noninvasive breast cancer. These lesions fall into two groups: ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (lobular neoplasia). The management of both entities is controversial. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) Proliferation of cytologically malignant breast epithelial cells within the ducts is termed DCIS.

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  • The spermine analogue N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) efficiently depletes the cellular pools of putrescine, spermidine and spermine by down-regulating the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and up-regulating the activity of the catabolic enzyme spermidine/ spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT). In the breast cancer cell line L56Br-C1, treatment with 10 lM DENSPM induced SSAT activity 60 and 240-fold at 24 and 48 h after seeding, respectively, which resulted in polyamine depletion. ...

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  • Chemotherapy Unlike many other epithelial malignancies, breast cancer responds to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, including anthracyclines, alkylating agents, taxanes, and antimetabolites. Multiple combinations of these agents have been found to improve response rates somewhat, but they have had little effect on duration of response or survival. The choice among multidrug combinations frequently depends on whether adjuvant chemotherapy was administered and, if so, what type.

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  • Follow-Up of Breast Cancer Patients Despite the availability of sophisticated and expensive imaging techniques and a wide range of serum tumor marker tests, survival is not influenced by early diagnosis of relapse. Surveillance guidelines are given in Table 86-5.

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  • I Am Not My Breast Cancer is a book that will help women realize that they are not alone when dealing with this disease. It will help their families, friends, colleagues, and also their physicians—anyone who is part of the fabric of their lives. It is a book that addresses what women are really feeling during this time when their health is at risk and their emotions are running high. It touches on the feelings they have about themselves head-on, with no compromises and no punches pulled.

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  • Cancer of the breast is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Every year 1.6 million women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer glo-cancer accounts for 23% of all female cancers glo-bally and shows a geographic variation in incidenc are 39 per 100,000 worldwide – 27 in less and 66 usually applied in single-center institutions per 100,000 in the more developed regions. Out of the 425,000 global annual deaths from breast cancer, however, 68,000 are young women from develop-duce major improvements wit limited financialing countries1.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'developing technologies for the early detection of breast cancer', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Benign breast disease comprises a wide range of conditions which worry patients, which vex physicians, which are vastly more common than breast cancer, and yet which have to date received relatively little attention in the medical literature. It is therefore a particular pleasure for me to introduce the third edition of Hughes, Mansel & Webster’s Benign Disorders and Diseases of the Breast, a unique and classic work which fully succeeds in addressing this imbalance and builds on the substantial and well-deserved success of the first (1989) and second (2000) editions.

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  • Breast cancer remains the most feared disease of all women, regardless of age, race, ethnicity, or culture. The causes of breast cancer remain a mystery, with a few exceptions. About 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer have no known risk factors. This implies that there are risk factors that haven’t yet been identified. Doctors are beginning to identify lifestyle choices that can influence our cancer risk. These lifestyle choices include diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and many other factors. We have control over how we nourish our bodies.

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  • The Palpable Breast Mass Women should be strongly encouraged to examine their breasts monthly. A potentially flawed study from China has suggested that BSE does not alter survival, but given its safety, the procedure should still be encouraged. At worst, this practice increases the likelihood of detecting a mass at a smaller size when it can be treated with more limited surgery. Breast examination by the physician should be performed in good light so as to see retractions and other skin changes.

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