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Oxidation Numbers

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  • The structure of the Italian banking system at the beginning of the 1990s can be traced back to the regulations introduced after the Great Depression, most importantly the forma- tion of the IRI (Instituto per la Ricostruzione industriale), which was a public holding company containing the three largest private banks (Banca Commerciale Italiana, Credito Italiano, and Banca di Roma) and a large number of public banks (Körnert and Nolte 2005: footnote 3). Many of the banks that were nationalized at that time were still publicly owned almost 60 years later.

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  • Sperm preparation procedures are a potential generator of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, which leads to a dramatic drop in fertility. An increasing number of studies suggest that melatonin reduces the oxidative stress induced by manipulation.

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  • We investigated the influence of the aspect ratio (H/R) of the oxide layer on the reactor vessel heating in three-layer configuration. Based on the analogy between heat and mass transfers, we performed mass transfer experiments to achieve high Rayleigh numbers ranging from 6.70  1010 to 7.84  1012. Twodimensional (2-D) semi-circular apparatuses having the internal heat source were used whose surfaces of top, bottom and side simulate the interfaces of the oxide layer with the light metal layer, the heavy metal layer, and the reactor vessel, respectively.

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  • Microstructural analysis indicated that there was no noticeable change in the microstructure of the oxide corresponding to water chemistry changes within the test duration of 100 days (pretransition stage) and no significant difference in the overall thickness of the oxide layer. Equiaxed grains with nano-size pores along the grain boundaries and microcracks were dominant near the water/oxide interface, regardless of water chemistry conditions. As the metal/oxide interface was approached, the number of pores tended to decrease.

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  • The measured Nusselt numbers showed a trend similar to those of existing studies, but the absolute values showed discrepancies owing to the high Prandtl number of this system. The measured angle-dependent Nusselt numbers were analyzed for 2-D and 3-D geometries, and a multiplier was developed that enables the extrapolation of 2-D data into 3-D data.

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  • Environmental pollution, especially water pollution, has become a serious problem worldwide. Therefore, a number of methods have been investigated and applied to deal with this problem. Using novel materials for environmental treatment is one of the most popular approaches. Among them, graphene oxide (GO) and GO-based materials have attracted much attention due to their unique properties.

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  • In spite of some early success with agile methodologies, a number of factors are preventing their widespread adoption. Agile methodology advocates often find it difficult to obtain management support for implementing what seem like dramatic changes in application development. These methodologies require developers, managers and users alike to change the way they work and think. For example, the XP practices of pair programming, test-first design, continuous integration, and an on-site customer can seem like daunting changes to implement.

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  • The beginning student in Organic Chemistry is often overwhelmed by facts, concepts, and new language. Each year, textbooks of Organic Chemistry grow in quantity of subject matter and in level of sophistication. This Schaum’s Outline was undertaken to give a clear view of first-year Organic Chemistry through the careful detailed solution of illustrative problems. Such problems make up over 80% of the book, the remainder being a concise presentation of the material. Our goal is for students to learn by thinking and solving problems rather than by merely being told....

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  • Therefore, ex vivo expansion of BMSCs is required to obtain a sufficient number of transplantable cells. Since BMSCs require several kinds of supportive factors for their growth, it is standard practice to use fetal bovine serum (FBS), while autologous human serum (HS) and pooled allogeneic HS have also been used. It has been suggested that FBS may not be favorable for clinical applications due to the possible risk of contamination (prions, viruses, zoonosis) or immunological reactions against xenogeneic serum antigens (Agata et al., 2009).

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  • ....CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2010 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number: 978-1-4200-5398-2 (Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources.

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  • The Power of Accounting: What the Numbers Mean and How to Use Them provides a highly readable text for non-financial managers. It explores accounting’s uses and limitations in the management process. The text is intended for users of accounting information as opposed to preparers. It focuses on aiding the reader in understanding what accounting numbers mean, what they do not mean, when and how they can be used for decision making and planning and when they cannot. Larry Lewis is a Professor of Accounting at the University of Portland’s Pamplin School of Business, USA.

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  • Forty undergraduate students from three different faculties were recruited for the study. Using official IELTS Test results obtained by the students at the beginning of their study in Australia and towards the end, as well as interviews with most of the students, the study investigated patterns of improvement, as well as lack of improvement among the 40 students. While most of the students in the study did achieve a higher score in the IELTS Test taken towards the end of their study in Australia, only a small number were able to achieve an Overall score of 7.0, with at least...

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  • Probiotics may exert a multidirectional effects affecting the gene expression in intestinal cells. A number of positive effects of probiotics have been indicated, particularly their beneficial effect in the pathologic conditions including antibiotic-associated traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), lactose intolerance, dental caries, gastroduodenal ulcers due to Helicobacter pylori, hepatic encephalopathy, intestinal motility disorders and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

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  • Fossil fuel combustion for transportation contributes to air pollution, and air pollution degrades human health. However, the path from transportation to human health costs is anything but straightforward. Which pollutants are produced in which proportions depend on a number of factors, including the vehicle and fuel used and the driving conditions of a particular trip. These emissions are dispersed into the ambient air according to atmospheric conditions, which also influence the extent to which they react to form secondary pollutants.

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  • In the section on ‘Lentiviral Vector’, the generation of high-titre lentiviral vectors capable of efficiently expressing transgenes over long periods of time is governed by a number of vector design rules. Chapter thirteen highlights the guiding design principles and the technical of the successful lentiviral gene vector design. Chapter fourteen reviews current status of lentiviral vector development, especially the progress in the lentiviral vector systems allowing the controlling of gene expression.

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  • The size of the board is a big factor in its effectiveness. As the number of directors increases over about 10, it becomes harder to involve everyone in debates that lead to sound decisions. It is usually best to keep the board at a manageable size. Building an effective board starts with a review of the composition of the board and the needs of the organization for specific skills, knowledge and experience. From this the organization can develop profiles of the positions it needs and begin recruiting to fill them.

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  • The rapidly increasing number of applications for microemulsions has kept this relatively old topic still at the top point of research themes. This book provides an assessment of some issues influencing the characteristics and performance of the microemulsions, as well as their main types of applications. In chapter 1 a short introduction about the background, various aspects and applications of microemulsions is given. In Part 2 some experimental and modeling investigations on microstructure and phase behavior of these systems have been discussed. ...

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  • Report on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Zimbabwe pointed out that notwithstanding the poor performance of the economy, Zimbabwe has made relative progress in a number of key areas such as universal primary education. Enrolment in primary schools has consistently been relatively high (with a net enrollment ratio of 91% in 2009 down from 98.5% in 2002). The rate of HIV infection has also seen an improvement with a decline from 16.1 percent in 2007 to 13.7 percent by 2009 partly on account of public awareness programs and education.

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  • Based on our observation about the likely relationship among subscriptions, the strategy works as follows. When a subscription reaches a server (either from a client or from another server), the server propagates that subscription only if it defines new selectable notifications that are not in the set of selectable notifications defined by any previously propagated subscription. Three bene- fits accrue from this approach. First, we reduce network costs by pruning the propagation of new subscriptions. Second, we reduce the storage requirements for servers.

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  • There is both controversy and confusion concerning appropriate stockpiling in order to be prepared for disasters. If we are to be self-sufficient and “on our own” for prolonged time periods, there must be some level of critical supplies stored on-site. Most documents acting as checklists, or that address LTC preparedness, will site the need for such stockpiling, but neglect to give recommendations or provide specific numbers (Department of Health and Human Services 2007; Montgomery County Advanced Practice Center for Public Health Preparedness and Response 2007; Krause 2007).

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