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Nguyên lý thiết kế cấu tạo các công trình kiến trúc 13

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Nguyên lý thiết kế cấu tạo các công trình kiến trúc 13

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Giải pháp bố cục không gian mặt bằng công trình công cộng: Nguyên tắc chung. Các giải pháp tổ hợp không gian mặt bằng. Không gian lớn. Không gian tập trung xung quanh. Không gian xuyên phòng. Không gian hành lang.

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Nội dung Text: Nguyên lý thiết kế cấu tạo các công trình kiến trúc 13

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  2. / B.TC.T~ UH H ~ C HT N * - BAN DAG @ I A N M+T t% DAG H . 4 -31 i @@ 7 nni ti+ GG c d c ~ Z~JI D ~h S* K HOANG : a - DAM C H~&H IGG hi C:C ~ T ~ I%NGANGDF.G L : N Y ~ P C G T b - DZMPHU b: -t- 4 i. I H. 4 - 3 2 SEN t5T.C.T &. e- @. &.VU&NG ' I I @ S, QUATMM + ut I I . 6.00 00 .0 -4- &.a* - 4-2.- AN 8 . ~ ~ 5 , ~.4-33 B.T.C.T L% GHEP a a . & A N . BT.C.T LA& G ~ & P 4 - L& 7 ~ 2 % b. BE.TON N - - d~S
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  4. CAU TAO CAU THANG. I.- Khai niem v$ cac phuang tien giao th8ng thhng dung : Trorig kign t ruc cac n h i cao t $ng d6u chn phiii c6 d ~ d n giao thBng Ien xu6ng gi3a cac t ang, t rong d6 gdm : chu t hang t h ~ d n gt,hang may, thang t y chuy6n, d&ng d6c .v.v... (H6-la) I/- Dddng d6c : g idi h an do d6c ti? 0 - 20'. Do d6c t d 1 : 1 0 t r6 xu6ng l am d&ng d6c thohi. Dudng d6c thohi t6n n h i h dien t ich n en chi sd d ung 6 mot s 6 cBng t rinh dqc biet n h b~ vien, gara 6t6 n hi&ut ang. enh 21- C &uthang thudng :Gidi hgn do d6c t d 20 - 4. T hich h dp n h i t l a 30' (1:s). 5' N6u > 60' t hi ddy l a chu t hang t hhng d dng. 31- Thang t$ chuydn :D ung 6 n h h g ndi co lubng n w d i di lqi r dt nhie*u nhU c da h ang bAch hoa, n ha ga .v.v... (H6-lb) 41- Thang m ay : Dung c ho c ic nhh cao tLng nhu nhh u, nhh 1hm viec 6 tang, benh vien, t r u h g hoc 4 d n g nhhm g iim b & hao phi nsng luqng ciia ngubi l&n xudng c h thang, ti& kiem thbi gian van chuy6n - Nhh cao tang cLn p hii c 6 thigt bl thang mBy M n canh t%yvHn ph6i thiet kk$ cAu thang t h u h g - Thang mAy thigt b j c a k hi phdc tap tien hao tdn sira chila l h , n&ndbi vdi c i c nhh xiiy d m g phd bi6n it dilng. (H6-lc). 11.- Cau tao cau thang : 11- M o th bo phan : CBc bo phan c a b in cha cLu thang gdm 2 b o phan chinh : t hin thang vh chie'u nghi. (H6-2) 1.1- Than thang : (H6-3) cgu tao : nhu mot loai shn g i c d4t nghieng trCn xAy bat d l di lai. - Y&ucAu - Thhnh phan : + Dam thang : trac dien : c 6 th6 hinh chii nhijt, hinh r ibg cua. + Bat thang : t hing goc vdi d u h g bao quanh hoac dAm thang (limdng), chng c 6 khi xCo g6c vdi t u h g bao quanh hoac ddm thang. Bgc thang c 6 th6 hinh c h3 L hay hinh tam g iic. BGc thang d6 di lai an tohn ph6i 1hm lan can. + Tran thang : y&ucAu ph6i my quan, ve sinh. 1.2- C hieu nghi : (H6-4)
  5. T han t hang s6' b$c li6n t yc khbng n611 qua 18 b$c, cGng khbng n &ni t h m 3 b@. Khi 1s b$c d gida n &nt hiQt k Qchi& n ghi. Ddi vdi cdu t hang t hoat n mdi la c hinh t hi chigu n gl~; hbng dddc t higt kke"qu$t. k 21- PhAn logi c&u hang : C6 n hi&ucach dd p hin loai cAu t hang. t 2.1- V i t ri : Dqa v6o vj t ri d st cQut hang t hi c6 : - CQut hang ngoai nha - CQut hang trong nha 2.2- S d dyng : - T rong nha :c6 c$u t hang chinh, cQut hang phu. - Ngoai nha :c6 cQut hang t hoat hidm, cQut hang dich vu. 2.3- V at lieu : - CQut hang xay ggch, da. - CQut hang thitp, g6 D( O D6 cao c - CQut hang b6tdng c6t thitp, cQut hang h6n hqp. di t d 59- - CBu t hang c hdt d de. - BI 2.4- Hinh thuc : (H6-5) thang 1 v&,2 - 3... ve". - Cdu - Cdu thang tron, tr8n oc. Q uar thang b it g iic, c iu thang lech tdng ... - Cdu t huc : rn 2.5- Ket cau chiu luc : V6i T11am s( - Cdu thanp ban chiu luc dam tier - C$u thang b6n ddm c h ~ uuc l Chi thang treo, t u h g , tru c h ~ uUC ... I - Cdu va 66 dB 31- T ham so cau tao chc bo p han : cao h = 3.1- Chieu rong than t hang : (H6-6a) - Tu9 thuqc vi tri : a- Tay vin 2 bCn : Om60/dm vj. b- Tay vjn 1 bCn, 1 bCn tudng : O,7Om/dm vi. c- T u h g u 2 bCn : 0 ,80m/dm vi.
  6. t huoc l a l ~ g n v a so"n w d i scl d ung t inh the0 vj tri. - Tuy g 2 d m vi 5 d m vj 1d m v j So"d m vj 1,80m 0,601~1 1,20m Vi t r i a 1 ,30m 1,80m V! t r i b 0,70111 1,50m 1,80m 0,80111 Vj t r i c T hbng thLfdng chidu r gng t han t hang nha d : 1 ,20 - 1,40mc6 thd bao dam 2 n@di l$n xudng d6 d ang (vi 2 n w d i c6 chi& r ong : 100 - 1 lOrm). C6u t hang p hu n h6 n hdt N ha cbng cong c i u t hangc6 c hi& r $ng call cQ v50 t inh t oan t hoat n g d i quy6t d jnh, thu'dng 1 ,40 - 2,OOm ( H6-6hl,b2) Do"i vdi thang leo, chidu r ong t han thang trong khohng 40-50cm (H6-6c) 3.2- D? d 6c : ( H6-7a,b) Do cao cua b$c t hang c6 quail he vdi chidu dai ciia b&c chan ng&i di. Chidu dai 1bLfdc di td 59-66cm t uy t he0 t 6c do di : - Ru-dc ch$n : 59cm - Budc t rung binh : 62 - 64cm - B ~idc hanh : 66cm. n Q uan h e g i h chi611 c ao 11 v ii c hiku r eng h c i ~ a gc t hang c o th6 bidu diEn b ang c c i n ~ b thirc : m = 2 h + b . (H6-7c). Vui in = 600 - 640m111 15 chi6u dai trung bin11 cita bu.Clc di ngLidi 1611 va tri! em. T ham so"v6 quan h e gida h va g d6 bao dam an toan la h + g = 440 - 470mm va d6 bao dam t ien nghi t11oAi inai la : g - 11 = 120 f 20mm. Chidu cao b$c t hang thbng thUdllg 1 140 - 200inin, c hi&ur e i ~ g6 15 320 - 220inm ; s va do do"c c i u t hang nAin t rong pham vi 24 - 45'. Do d6c b$c t hang t hich h dp c6 chidu cao h = 150 - 18Omin, c11idu rang 240 - 300inm va 66 do"c 26 - 33'. T hich 11dp n11a"t la : h/b 150 / 300 = 160 / 280 26'34' - 29'45'. Do d6c : Do d6c cdu t hang cbn ttfdng quan d6n cbng nRng c ua cbng trinh
  7. N ha d T rudng hoc H6i t rudng Ben11 vien N ha tri? h 156-175 140-160 130-150 150 120-150 b 250-300 280-320 300-350 300 250-280 D6i vdi chu t hang di lai it n s d i , c6 t h6 lam h ai do"c mot it : h/b = 170 / 260mm 1 75 / 250 200 / 200 3.3- Chi& ngh; : D6 bAo dAm di lai t hugn t ien va khbng b j il dong n s d i , c h i h r o i ~ glia c hi& ngh; c c h i h r ong thAn t hang. Ddi vdi chu t hang mot v6' d6 t ranh h ien t uqng phai d i m chAn vi 16 budc t hi c h i h r ong clia chi& ngh; > 3 lhn chi& r gng b ac t hang hogc c hi&ur ong t h5u t hang c6 thd d ~ q tc t he0 cbng thifc : inh L = n(2h+b)+b (H6-8) (11 la so"b ~ d tc chi6'u n ghi) ai 3.4- Lan can tay vln : C h i h cao lan can c6 quan h$ tdi do ddc c 6a cAu t hang, chu t haug do"c it y6u cAu lan can cao va n s q c lai cAu t hang do"cnhi6u t hi lan can t hgp h m . ThBng t hudng chi& cao lan can tinh td tAm mgt b$c t hang t rd 16x1 la : 0,80 - 1,00m, t rung b inh lgy 0,90m do"i vdi n s d i ldn va 0,65m cho t re em. 3.5- Khoing cach di 1 ~(k11oAng t hoat dAu) (H6-9) t Do cao thbng t h6y chu t hang chn bAo dAm cho n s d i di lai binh t h~fdllg ,OOm. D6 2 bAo dAm do cao nhy thAn t hang m8i v6' c6 t h6 lam so"b$c k hac nhau 1 108~ a n 6n xu6ng h 3.6- Vj tri va so" Iuqng c6u thang : lam t 5ng th6m my q uan c 6a cbng trinh. - Vj t r i chu t hang c an cif vao m at bAng, t inh c hgt cbng trinh, tinh t oan 1Uqng n s d i q ua lai ma quy6t d jnh. - So" 1Uqng cAu t hailg quy6't d inh bdi : cbr:g d ung, so" tAng, dien t ich, so" nwdi va y6u cAu p hong hoa. l isn t uc gi3a cac ha1111 l ang va cac bubng c3u t hang r dt chi1 thi6't va cAn bo"t ri - Stf
  8. dd d3 n h+n t hgy r 6 t rong cbng trinh. kidn truc c6 c hieu d i i 10m t hi cdu t hang c6 t hg d gt 6 g6c n ao tuy y . - CB11g t riilE kidn t rue d ai 1 2 - 30m thi cdu t hang 161 d st t ai trung tAm h oac t ruc - CBng t rinh 11 - C bng t rinh ki6n t ruc dai 30m phAi d ung 2 h ay n hi6u cdu t hang, d gt 6 v j t r i n hin t hdy d6 d ang tI3 h anh lang b c ac t dng Idu v tii' b Qnngoai. A Khoang cach g i3a c ac b u6ng cBu t hang tii' 40 - 50in t uy t huoc vao b6 ddy c ua cBng t rinh kid11 t ruc va k hoang c ach di ddn cdu t hang ghn n hgt tI3 b gt c d c h6 n ao t roilg t 6a n ha k1lBng q ua 3 0m. - C bng t rinh ki6n t ruc co h dp kh6i bbi n hi6u n hanh t hi v j t r i buBng cBu t hailg n Qn b et t ai chc goc t rong h ay g6c ngoai va tai giao didm c ua c ac h anh l ang. GiAi phap XI? 1y t gi vi t ri xoay goc d 6i hadng : 3.7- - X d l y t ay v jn v a l an c an tgi c h i h n ghi : ( H6-10) + C hi&unghi d ~fdc di r ang thein b ang chi& r ongb$c t hang t rQnmot n hanh thang. n + DBm t llang u6n cong. -X d ly b$c t hang : ( H6-11) + Myc dich y Qucdu : T r u h g h ap bu6ng thang khong d 6 dien tich d6 thiEt kE chie'u nghi, yeu cdu cdu tao cau thang hinh quat. Lam thohi d o doc 6 phan e o bGc xoay goc. Giam t hiiu c ich biet gifia c i c e o bgc v6i e o b$c ben trong 10 c m, bet thang hinh quat vdi goc n goii bang 10' v i tai vi tri cdch tay vjn 25cm b&rQng bec thang > 22cm. A p dung c ho t r u h g h ap xoay g6c ddi h u h g 180° P humg p hip d m gihn (H6-12a) P humg phAp giao didm 2 vong tron (H6-12b) A p dung cho t r u h g hap xoay goc d6i h u h g 90'. P humg phap b in c i o (H6- 12c) 111.- Cau tao cau thang go : C$u t hang g 6 la l oai cdu thang ma cdc bQ phgn c hinh chiu luc nhu d am thang kd
  9. c bgc t hang va chidu n gh; d$u ddgc cfiu t ao bang vat lieu g6. Bdi v$y n6n c iu t hang gb A c6 uU didm la n he t hi c6ng n hanh, d lam dqp bAng khAc c ham. Nhu'dc didm cfia loai B c i u t hang g6 c6 thd suy t d v g t lieu ndy la d6 mdi, mot, muc, d6 chay va thu'dng b j r ung ndu t hyc h iencfiu t ao r ap n6i k hbng d ung qui c ich. a- 2.1-Hinh thdc bet thang : B$c t hang dugc ca"u tao b ang van g6 du day d6 chju cho c6c s dc nQng cua n@di v i v a t di chuykn b6n t r6n no, t.hu'dng m et b$c duqc c hon van c6 b6 day tli' 4 - 5cm, van lam d6i b$c c6 bd day 2 - 3cm. b- MQt b$c va d6i b$c duqc r ap n6i bbng mong r51111 va d inh, troilg 3 c ach t hi t h d 2 dhm chi va 3 d at y6u c i u h bn. Mui b$c bao dam n h6 r a 4 - 5cm. (H6-13a.b) DBI 0 noi thu'dng dm uirt, b ac khdi h i n h cua cAu t hang g6 n6n xAy bbng gach da hay dAm tht b$tbng n ham bAo v e c hdng muc cho d i u t ya c ua dAm t hang g6 6 vl t r i nAy. (H6-14) c- ( 2.2- H i n h thdc dhrn thang : Theo t r6c die11 va k i t hugt cdu t ao, c i n phAn biet va s6 gii 2 loai cAu t hang : hqp cdu a- Dhin t hang hi1111 chi3 n hat : b$c t hang du'qc dQt va li&nk6't vao dAn1 h bng cach I 3.4 xoi r 5nh hoQc dong gd chlu b$c. (H6-15) b- DAm t hang hinh r ang cu'a : co thd t hqc h ien t he0 2 cach : iogc cu'a dAm t hann t h inh r ang cu'a, hoQc t hqc h ien ri6ng r e lam 2 phAn va dude r ap g hr,p lai - Chi6u cao cua dAm t hang h inh rBng cua b phAn chiu Iqc c hinh cua d im cAn bao cl;iin > 15cm. (H6-16) 3)- Chi ti& c8u tao : -M 3.1- C5u tgo 6n dinh d6m thang : ( H6 - 1 7) ! 1 cau t 8 T rudng h gp mot dAm t hang dat s at tu'dng, cAn d at m6c s i t ch6n vao t u ' ~ n g d neo d gigy 6p. chju d im, dbng t hdi co bd t ri bu Ion c h h g g i3 2 dAm t hang d6' lien k6t c hung lai, dAin 1 - SL bao k hoang cach nha"t djnh cua chidu r ong thAn t hang va gi3 cho t oan ho k6t C ~ L 1 A I1 y I Theo c6 kh611g bj x6 djch t he0 phu'ong ngang, dap d ng y6u c iu c h6ng r ung cho C ALI t ht~ng. 18 m at tr 3.2- GhGp no"id6m thang : ( H6-18) Khi g6 lain d im t hang kh61lg du dai t hi cAn phai g hep n6i, vdi indi ghep g8m 3 t hanh phAn : - Hao mong g6 dd g id 2 m at ddu r ap k hit vao nhau. Lh 1( lieu s it bu Ion sidt c h$t 2 ddu ghkp n6i. - Mot b$t8ng c - Mot mi6ng t hep dep du'qc b5t d inh vit a p sat vao m at da du'di c ua dAm t hang tai Cau mdi n6i, chiu sQc keo. Iliy rong Ki6u c ach g hep n6i nay a p d qng c hung c ho c a 2 h inh t hdc dhm t hang hinh ch cAu t har
  10. 3.3- C6u tao chi& ngh; : ( H6-19) Tiiy the0 v j t ri, m at b ang va h inh t hiic cGa chi& ngh; ma c6 t h6 a p dung 1 t rong i a- GiAi p hap dAm chiQunghi la b6 ph$n chiu s an chi6u n ghi, dBng t hbi la di6m t qa cho cac dAm t hang ciia cac n hanh cAu t hang. b- G iii p hap dAm t hang va tru phu dAm t hang va tay vjn mot n hanll cAu t hang va d6m chiQunghi d ~ d lc kgt b5ng mong t hdng qua mot t ru phu trung gian. ien DAu t ren va dudi ciia t ru phu phai dUdc chifa du ch6 d8 r ap mong cho t ay vjn va dAm t hang v6 2 hUdng, c6 do cao ch6nh n hau b ang m6t b$c. (H6-19b) c- GiAi p hap dAm can don bdy : vdi don b iy d ~ q d at g6i 16n dhin can 6 khoang gi3a c va sit ghnh chju d8m t hang6 dAu ngoai. Giai phap nAy c ung s6 d ~ q a p d ung cho t r ~ d n g c ! hdp c ju t hang xoay goc ddi h ~fdng hdng c6 chiQu nghl. (H6-19c) k I a- MUC ich :la bo ph$n che m st dudi cGa t h i n t hang, nh5m che bui td t ren rdi d I xudng loai t rit hdc k&inkhdng cllo n hen gifing, dBng t hbi t ang vit my quan chung cho I c du t hang. b- Cciu tao : - Mat trdn thuirng d uqc l am bang c ich to vi7a lCn luui thCp h oac nep go, tuy nhiCn vi l a c au t hang b ang g o nCn v$ phuong d ien m y thu$t thi nCn d ong v6n ghCp, g o d i n hay -S U tran than t hang c 6 t he lien ket vho b ac thang ho$c lien k&t vvho ddm thang. ~ Theo c ich trCn thuirng b i Anh h u h g ciia s u rung cua b$c khi c 6 n gubi d i u ben trCn, nhi't 18 m at t rin t o vi3a sS: d6 b ~ ran n & (H6-20). 1V.- Cau tao cau thang sat thep : 1)- Dac diem : La loai cdu thang m i b o phan c hiu luc c hinh n hu d i m t hang d uuc thuc hien b ang vat lieu s at thCp - Con bgc t hang co th$ b ang sat thtp hoac b ing vat lieu k hic n hu go, d6, betong c ot t htp. t ai C iu t hang s i t thCp c o uu d iem 1 i bdn c hac hon c au t hang go, vui than t hang c o t he lily rong v i dvhi hon - V icc l ap r6p cdu t hang thuc hien n hanh va dE, nhi't 12 d oi vdi kidu hl3 c au t hang xoay g oc h oac x oan tron oc. Tuy nhiCn cdn luu y d en bien p hap khac phuc
  11. i111uqc di6m cd b i n ciia vat lieu s i t thAp la ~ h a si m bao t ri de p hbng c h6ng r; s et. F 2)- M 6 t&bo phan : 2.1- lIillh thiz'cbac thang : B$c t hang dude t huc h ien vdi s udn c h/u ingt b$c b5ng t hep h inh c h a L , i nat b$c lam b ang cac tdm t61e co k hia hogc dugc lien k gt ha11 h ay tgm v6i1 g8 b i t d inh vit v io s udn. M et b$c t hang c6n c6 t h6 !am b ang b an betbng c6t t hep dot v io khu6n t hep h inh c h 3 L d6 lien kdt vao dhm t hang. D6i b$c dufdc lain bgng t61e p hing. B$c t hang 6didin khbi hAnh t ai ndi t hutmg 6m u dt n en xAy b ang gach da, b etbng a- c6t t hep d6 g at dAm t hang n ham chbng ri s 6t b didin t qa cua d iin. (H6-21) gach d 2.2- Hinh thdc diim thang D6am t hang s 6t t hep c6 2 h inh thifc : h inh c h 3 n hgt, hi1111 r ang cufa. - DAm t hang h inh cl18 n hat : D ung cac tdin t6le d iy td 6-12mm nguy6n t gm hogc d$p hi1111 c hOU, hay g hep vdi t hkp h inh c hd L, h osc c6 t h6 ghep v6i g6 t hanh d im rbng, dufgc l i p ghep n6i b ang din11 tan hay m6i h ail. (H6-22) 1.; vao ti 1: - DAin t hang hin11 r 5ng cufa : Diing cho cac tdin t61e ngc~yen d c6t t he0 h inh r ang d b$c. c ~fa, osc diing t hep b in, t hep t r6n dd t ao hinh r ang cufa t r6n d iin hin11 chi? n hat. h (H6-23) ci kdt cdi 2.3- Tr6n thAn thang : (116-24) - S udn t r i n t hudng d uqc lien kdt treo b5ng t hep t rbn hay t hkp b an vha k6t cgu b$c t hang. - Mgt t rhn duqc cdu t ao b sng giai phap t6 v aa 1 1 h fdi t hkp d ~fqc uot vao s udn 61 b 2.1- d$t ngh hoec c6 thd d ung t6n p hang di! lain in$t t rin. 25 - 3 C 3)- C hi ti6t c6u tao : x Ay b in 3.1- Ghep n6i cl6m thang : Khi cAc d&mt hang lrl1611g d u dai, cdn phai g hep n6i I t hi c6 t h i a p d ung giAi phlip n6i b ang c ach dgt lib11 ddu v6i tdin che m6i n6i duqc lien I k6t 11an hogc d inh tan. 3.2- Libn ke't clgm t hai~g ao dgm chi& nghi : D im clli6'u nghi thu.trng dugc v g hep b sng 2 t hep h inll cl13 I , U. Din1 t hailg duf~; lien kdt v io dAm c l~idu~ b ang nghi I bulon v i t hdp h inh c h6 L vdi nh
  12. 1.1- V+t lieu : Bgc chu t hang d w c c au t no b i n g c ach xAy g ach hay d , vdi gach A t hi d ung loai ggch d 5 duedc6p 2 lA11 Iuc s an xugt., b ao dam c hgt :tLfdngt 6t1t hanh vudng can11 thAng - Vdi d a t hi dung loai da cisng. dgc ch6c ( granit, d idrit, b anzan) c hiu inai in611 1111511 m at l lhuhg k hbng t rdn, h osc deo than11 t dng dai 1 ,20m d6 l am b$c t hang. 1.2- Hinh thir'c bijc thang : a- B$c t hang x5y b hng g ach c6 t h6 d gt n &mv i&ng acl~, huhg n &nd$t n ghi&ngvi&n n g ach dd t ao b$c t r h k h6i nn&n Etdng. b b- Bgc t hang b 5ng dh d'dc gia cdng dd c6 t i6t d ien t he0 hi1111 ch13 n h$t h oac hi1111 d a gihc m ot k h6i h ay 2 n hhnh vdi m ui b$c n hd r a t13 2 - 4cm, cao 4 - 6 cin. N goii r a c611 c6 n h3ng b@ct hang b hng dh d ~ g dgo g ot t he0 h inh t hdc d ac b iet d6 xAy cAu t hang c6 c t h$n t hang t ron hay xoiin t rbn 6c. (H6-27) 1.3- Pham v i a p dung : CBu t hang nAy t hudng duqc dem hp d ung t ai c5c n g5 r a vao 6 b &nngoai n h i , cbn d ~ i q c oi c hung l a b$c t am cgp t uy sb b$c c6 t hd nhiEu ha11 3 g CAu t hang nay c ung d6 dcfqc t hyc h ien 6 bbn t rong n ha, t roilg c ac d inh t h y cd, c6 k 6t c h i ttu'isng x8y c u6n voin c hju lcfc. C6u t hang xAy b hng d a, g ach chi d ~ i q cip d ung d i n h i t i ~ g ai k h6ng co i ngch nu'dc nghm. n 2)- Chi t iet cau tau : 2.1- CAu thang xAy gach : Vdi s o bac < 6 thi cau thang xAy bang gach dat nam hay dat nghiCng tren ldp dgt n th d 2 dAm ch$t d &mot ldp bCt6ng gach v 6 hay d i d8m m i c 2 5 - 3 0 day toi thie"u 15cm. Ngu s o b$c > 6 thi b$c thang xAy tr&nvbm c uon. CAu thang x i y bang gach, dB d&ux iy bhng v3a ximang m i c 50. (H6-28). 2.2- Cau thang xay bang da : a - C au thang ngoai trdi :Bac thang bang dB d ii 1,20m d uuc dat goi lCn 2 doan d ubng thgp c 6 bd day 22cm d & 2 dau bac thang n gim v io 2 bCn tubng it nhat 1 l cm. Trutmg hgp chic% ngang c ha cdu thang rong thi phai xiiy c6c t u h g chju di3 b?c c ich khoang 1,20m khi so bac > 6 thi cBc c hlu bGc d uac x iy cudn d l ti& kiem vat lieu - Ngu phan d udi nhh kh8ng c 6 tang h im thi cdu thang x iy bang n h a g phi& d6 li&nkhoi, ngu nh8 c 6 tang h3m c an liiy i n h s ing v8 th6ng gi6 thi tai chi& c ao ngang tam cira cua tang ham c an dat cBc b i c thang c 6 d uc thung 6 kho6ng gi3a. D l nu& m ua kh6ng chhy vAo n hi, bet trCn cung nCn d?t thgp h m n$n nhh I cm, ddng thai ca'c mat bgc can 1im h ai doc ra n goii vdi d o doc 1 - 5%. BGc tam c ap c hju tAi t rong nhe h m s o vdi t udng n goii c ha n hi, d o d 6 cdn c au t ao
  13. k he bidn dgng giQa 2 bo p h$n dd khdllg b j a nh h&ng Ian n hau nhu. co h ien t udng l un k h8ng d6u. (H6-29) b- C6u thang trong nhci : b l- Cdu thang co thhn thang t hing : B$c da duqc d gt d ddu ngam vao t udng, ddu kia gat t r8n ddm t hang b 5ng t hep hogc b 5ng b8tdng c6t t hep. Chigu nghi co thd lam bhng 6tbng c 6t t hep hay x iy cuo"n, mot ddu ti vao ddm chiku ngh;, d$u kia ngam vho t udng. T rudng h qp cdu t hang 6 giQa 2 t udng, khi chi6u n gang c i a t h i n t hang hep t hi b$c t hang duqc ch8n ngam b 2 ddu vao t udng c hiu, k hi c hi&u gang cua t han t hang ro11g 1,50m t hi xay cu6n vom ti vao 2 t udng n I doc t he0 t h i n t hang dd chju d6 b$c thang. (H6-30) I b2- Cn*u tltang co th6.n tltang tron :Cdu t hang loai ndy ca"u t ao t he0 kidu xoe nan quat, cac b$c co 1 dhm c h6ng 1611 n hau t he0 chi6u t h i n g d h g , con ddu kia ngain vao t Udng chju t heo d udng vong xofin t r8n 6c 16n cao ddn t dng b$c, phdn ddu b$c t hang k6 I c h h g l8n n hau co d udng k inh 30cin, ph$n ddu ngam vao t udng co doan i m s iu 12cm. d lnBi b$c t hang chi&urang gida b$c tr6n dudng bu6c phlii dd rQng d$ dijt chfin (25 - II 1.1 30cin) s au khi d6 t r d phAn g6i t qa c ua bac dgt kg lien b8n t r6n - Chi&uday in6p du6i i va thoi cua b$c t hang k116ng n ho hdil 30cm. (M6-31) bet6ng I V1.- Cau tao cau thang betong cot thep : 1 -L C au thang bCtong c ot th6p c o uu d iim la b$n l i u , k hong chhy do d o d uqc dung rong n$u cfi~ riii trong nha d an d ung cGng n hu c ong n ghiep. Cau thang bCtong c ot thCp c o 2 lo$ : 114 gac Tohn k h6i v i l ap g htp. d oc Ian -L 1)- Cau thang betong cot thep toan khoi : trang tl 1.1- Dac diem : khong c - Uu d iim : C au t hang b etong c ot thCp tohn k hoi c o do c img vh Bn d jnh c ao, khong b j h an chi5 b bi tiku c hudn hoh, hinh t huc d a dang t hoa m 5n m oi yCu c au t ham m y c ua ki$n t rdc. A p d ung trong c 6ng trinh d i n d ung bang bCt6ng c ot thCp vB c 6 yCu c6u d ac T~ vat l ieu biet v&t ao hinh tham m y. vit, hhn - N huqc d iim : T 6n c ot pha, t6c d o thi cong vh d ua v i o s u d ung c ham. 1.2- H e thong ket cau chju luc : H inh t huc k$t c au c hlu lqc c o 2 l oai : B in v i b an dAm. C iu t hang hinh thuc ban : ThAn t hang 18 m ot b an p hing, b an c hju toAn bQ tai trong +L - thc d ung 1Cn c i u t hang, b an t ua 1Cn t u h g h ogc tua trCn d i m 6 6 c hi& nghi v i c hi& tdi, thCp b61 h inh t huc k$t cfiu nay thich hap n hjp c au t hang n h6 : 4 ,50m v i h ep 1,50m, c hju tai trong t u m g d 6i n ho. (H6-32).

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