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Bàn về hợp tác kinh tế thương mại Việt Nam - Trung Quốc

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Bài viết nêu lên tình trạng chung xuất nhập khẩu giữa Việt Nam và Trung Quốc, những tồn tại khác trong hợp tác kinh tế - thương mại Việt - Trung, tác động tiêu cực đến phát triển kinh tế xã hội Việt Nam...

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Nội dung Text: Bàn về hợp tác kinh tế thương mại Việt Nam - Trung Quốc

D D D D KINH NGHIEM THUD T I I N D D D D<br /> <br /> <br /> BAN V§ HOP TAC KINH T^ THI/ONG MAI VIET NAM - TRUNG QU6c<br /> <br /> Hodng Sy Dfng<br /> <br /> <br /> Nlu bdn hgp tdc chiln luge giiia hai 1. Tinh trang chung xuat nh^p khiu<br /> quoc gia thi diu cin bdn din 4 try cpt chinh gifra Vift Nam vi Trung Quoc<br /> nhu sau: 1. Hpp tdc qudc phdng, an ninh; 2, /./. Syr gia t&ng gii tri, sy gidm laSng<br /> Hgp tac kinh tl, thuang mai; 3, Hgp tdc vdn tSng trudng cda kim ngach xudt nb$p khiu<br /> hda, xa hdi; 4, Hgp tdc bdo vf mdi tnrdng Sy gia tdng gid trj xuit nhap khiu (XNK)<br /> sinh thdi. Trong bdi ndy, tdc gid tap trung vdo giOra 2 quoc gia vdi toe dp cao, ludn vugt<br /> hgp tdc kinh tl, thuang mai Vift Trung md moc d^t ra vd cdng nhOmg ndm gin ddy gid tri<br /> khdng ban din cdc ITnh vyc kia. Bdi viet cdng ldn, dung thu nhi Uong trao doi thucmg<br /> nhdm myc tieu cimg cd quan hf ddi tac chien mai giiia Vift Nam vdi cdc nude, cu the, giai<br /> luge Vift - Trung, gidm thdm hut thuang mai doan 91 - 95 gid tri kim ngach XNK la<br /> tren co sd xdy dyng chien luge hgp tdc kinh 1.517.7 ty USD, giai doan 96 - 00 tang len<br /> tl thuang mai dl hai ben cimg thdng. 6.859.8 ty USD, giai doan 01 05 dat<br /> <br /> Bang 1: Kim ngach XNK Viet Nam Trung Quoc 20 nam<br /> Dan vi: trieu USD vd %<br /> <br /> Giai doan Tong kim Tang Kim TSng Kim Ting<br /> ngach trudng ngach trudng ngach tnrdng<br /> XNK binh xuat khau binh nhap binh<br /> quan ciia Vift quan khau ciia qufin<br /> Nam Trung<br /> Quoc<br /> <br /> 1991 1995 1.517,7 908,1 609,6<br /> <br /> 1996-2000 6.859,8 33,5 3.537,2 33,5 3.322,6 33,6<br /> <br /> 2001-2005 28.344,4 25,5 10.946,0 16,0 17.398,4 33,3<br /> <br /> 2006-2010 69.163,9 23,7 16.648,0 11,0 52.515,9 29,2<br /> <br /> NguSn: B6 Cong thuang.<br /> <br /> 38.344,4 ty USD, giai doan 06 - 10 tang toi<br /> 69.163,91^ USD vdi bmh quan/nam tuang tu<br /> ' Ho^ng sy Dgng, Ph6 gido su, tien sT, BO Ke ho?ich vd<br /> Diutu. tir 303,5 trifu USD, ldn 1.372,0 trifu USD,<br /> <br /> <br /> ^ QUAN Lt KINHTE SO'43 (9+10/2011)<br /> BAN ve HOP TAC KINH T ^ T H U O N G MAI VIET NAM... KINH NGHIEM THlTC TllN VEMR<br /> <br /> tdi 7.668,9 trifu USD vd dat ... trifu USD.<br /> 1.3. Chung loai, so lugng vd chat lugng<br /> Tuy nhien, cd su gidm din theo thdi gian vl<br /> hdng hoa xuat khau giiia hai nude<br /> tdc dp tang trudng kim ngach XNK, tir 33,5%<br /> (giai doan 1996 2000), gidm cdn 25,5% Hang hda xuit khiu chii lyc ciia Viet<br /> (giai doan 2001 - 2005) vd xuong cdn Nam sang Trung Qudc bao gom nhdm hang<br /> 23,7%?? (giai doan 2006 - 2010) vdi binh cdng nghifp: la diu thd, than da, dd difn tir<br /> quan/ndm gidm tir 6,7%, xuong cdn 5,1% vd (may tfnh, may in, linh kien difn tii) va mdt<br /> d mire 4,9% cimg giai doan. so loai khac vdi gia tri nhd. Dac dilm ca bdn<br /> 1.2. Tham hut thuang mai cda Viet Nam cua hdng hda cdng nghifp chu luc ciia Viet<br /> theo thdi gian tang manh Nam xuit khiu sang Trung Qudc diu d dang<br /> Tdng trudng gid tri xuit khiu ciia Vift nguyen lifu thd, chua qua chi biin, hodc d<br /> Nam gidm din, tir 33,5% (giai doan 1996 dang hang hda cdng nghifp trinh dp thip hay<br /> 2000), xuong 16,0% (giai doan 2001 2005), Id hdng tam nhap, tai xuit. Nhdm hdng ndng<br /> chi cdn 11,0% (giai doan 2006 2010), trong nghifp bao gdm hdng hda ndng sdn chii lyc Id<br /> khi cimg chi tieu ndy ciia Tnmg Qudc thay qua nbift ddi nhu dua hiu, thanh long, vai<br /> ddi khdng ddng kl, tir 33,6%, gin nhu khdng thilu, nhan, chudi (da rd ngudn gdc xuit xir<br /> thay doi cdn 33,3% vd gidm khdng nhilu nhu yeu ciu Trung Quoc), gd, Ign...; thuy<br /> bdng 29,2% theo timg giai doan. tuy toe dp sdn (tdm, cua, myc, ngao); dd gd gia dung gia<br /> tdng trudng gid tri xuit khiu gidm xudng cd, dugc lieu.... khde vdi hang hda cdng<br /> nhung gid tri thuc tl lai rit ldn, gdy thdm hut nghifp, hdng ndng san chit lupng khdng thip,<br /> thuang mai ciia Vift Nam vdi Trung Qudc nhung chua phan loai, chua chi biin, ddi khi<br /> ngdy mdt ldn gin 20 nam vira qua, ddc bift ty ldm xdu di nhu phun nude vdo vdi thilu<br /> chilm tdi khodng 95% tham hyt thuong mai khd nen chit lugng thip, chua dat tieu chuin<br /> ciia Vift Nam vdd cac nude nam 2010. qudc tl vd gid tri thu dugc thip.<br /> <br /> Bang 2: Cac mat hang xuat khau chii Iuc cua Viet Nam sang Trung Quoc<br /> Dan vi: (trieu USD)<br /> <br /> STT Mat hang 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2009<br /> <br /> 1 Dau thd 686,79 187,80 1.471,00 1.160.16 399,91 462,6<br /> <br /> 2 Cao su 88,66 147,00 357,00 519,20 851,38 856,7<br /> <br /> 3 Thuy sdn 195,30 77,80 48,10 61.97 65,05 124,8<br /> <br /> 4 Rau qua 121,50 67,10 24,90 34,94 24,61 55,3<br /> <br /> 5 Hat dieu 38,10 52,40 70,20 97,36 94,49 177,5<br /> <br /> 6 Than da 44,10 48,87 134,00 370,17 594,76 935,8<br /> <br /> 7 Dft may 19,59 28,45 14,80 8,14 46,2<br /> <br /> 8 Mdy tinh, 19,30 22,49 25,90 74,56 73,81 287,2<br /> linh kifn<br /> .y<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> S£f 43 (9+10/2011) QUAN Lt KINHTE g<br /> KINH NGHIEM THI/C TIEN BAN V^ HOP T A C K I N H T ^ THLTONG MAI V I E T NAM,,,<br /> VEMR<br /> <br /> <br /> STT Mdt hdng 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2009<br /> <br /> 11,30 12,38 35,00 60,34 94,07 197,9<br /> 9 Do go<br /> <br /> 10 Gidy d^p 7,28 10,91 18,30 28,32 29,70 98,0<br /> <br /> <br /> 11 SPnhya 2,80 7,44 4,70 3,14 15,8<br /> <br /> <br /> 12 Cd phe 3,92 6,90 5,80 7,63 25,0<br /> <br /> <br /> 13 Gao 1 AQ n 90 19,20 11,96 12,44<br /> <br /> Ngudn: BO C6ng thirang.<br /> <br /> Hdng hda xuit khiu chu lyc cua Trung nhilu tinh cua tdc gid). Nhdm hdng ndng<br /> Quoc sang Vift Nam bao gom: Nhdm hdng nghifp gom hdng hda ndng sdn chu luc la<br /> cdng nghifp, chii ylu Id mdy mdc, xdng dau, qud nbift dn ddi nhu tdo. Id, nho nhung<br /> difn, nguyen phy lifu vd sdn phim dft may, chua rd nguon goc xuit xu nhu yeu cau<br /> da giiy, hda chit, dilu hda, mdy tinh, difn Trung Quoc ddi vdi qud Vift Nam, gd gia,<br /> thoai di ddng, mdt sd loai vat lifu xdy dyng mpt so thyc p h i m khde. khde vdi hang hoa<br /> va mdt so mat hdng khde. ddc dilm ca bdn ndng sdn Vift Nam, hdng ndng sdn Trung<br /> cua hdng hda cdng nghifp chii lyc ciia Quoc chit lugng t h i p , cdng tdc bdo quan<br /> Trung Qudc xuat khiu sang Vift Nam chit chit lugng thilu chuin myc nen chua dam<br /> lugng thip, gid re, thdm chf dd cfl (nhd mdy bdo tieu chuin x u i t k h i u qudc t l . Vift Nam<br /> dudng, xi mdng...) vd nhieu loai chua cd ciing chua dua yeu c i u bdt bupc phia Trung<br /> ngudn gdc rd rang do nhap lau, ddc bift Id Quoc phdi cd chung chi nguon gdc ddi vdi<br /> dd dimg gia dung (khdo sdt ndm 2009 tai cdc loai hdng hda ndy.<br /> <br /> <br /> Bang 3 : Cac mat hang xuat khau chii luc cua T r u n g Quoc sang Vift Nam<br /> Dan vj: (trieu USD)<br /> <br /> TT Mat hang Don vi 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2008 2009 2010<br /> <br /> 1 Xdng dau 1000 tin 231.7 473.5 720.6 739.8 884.3 446.1 1290.162 1060.888<br /> <br /> 2 Phan bdn 1000 tin 62.6 58 243.2 392 264.3 719.931 596.026 603.4<br /> <br /> Vdi, phy lifu<br /> 3 may Mil USD 14.5 31.8 39 290.3 323.6 1544.143 1565.976 2218.368<br /> <br /> Nguyen phu<br /> 4 lifu da giay Mil USD 43,8 78,0 105,1 360.546 407.445 671.007<br /> <br /> Chat deo,<br /> 5 nguyen lifu 1000 t i n 6.8 10.5 14.8 22.4 35.2 121.808 135.135 223.236<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> S 3 QIJAN Lt KINH Tl S£i43((I+10/Z011)<br /> BAN V^ HOP TAC KINH T ^ THUONG MAI VI$T NAM. KINH NGHIEM THlTC TIEN VEMR<br /> <br /> <br /> TT Mat hang Don vi 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2008 2009 2010<br /> Thudc trir<br /> sau, nguyen<br /> 6 lifu Mil USD 19.3 26.8 26 62.4 76.1 200.263 202.129 226.934<br /> 7 Xa, sgi dft 1000 tin 18.8 28.4 43.3 120.452 115.585 239.45<br /> 8 Sdt thep 1000 tin 54.7 69.6 109.4 409.6 718.1 2308.865 815.662 1519.044<br /> <br /> 1000<br /> 9 Xemdy chile 401.9 95.5 47.7<br /> <br /> 10 Otd tdi Mil USD 3.2 2.8 6 51.2 99.9<br /> <br /> 11 Tan dugc Mil USD 6.8 7.2 7.9 6.2 6.3<br /> <br /> Vdi may<br /> 12 mac Mil m 48.9 183.3 324 447.3 661.2<br /> <br /> Hod chat,<br /> sdn pham 1000<br /> 13 hod chat USD 729.263 708.613 912.332<br /> <br /> Linh kifn,<br /> phy tiing xe 1000<br /> 14 may USD 85.566 133.672 126.592<br /> <br /> May vi tinh<br /> vd linh Icif n 1000<br /> 15 dien tii USD 654.377 1463.551 1682.616<br /> <br /> Mdy mdc<br /> thilt bi, phy 1000<br /> 16 timg khde USD 3769.469 4155.283 4477.616<br /> <br /> Nguon: Bg C6ng thuang.<br /> dl Vift Nam nghiem tiic hpc hdi. Luan gidi<br /> 2. Nhirng ton tai khac trong hpp t^c<br /> cu thi do la cdch tilp can phdi hop nhip<br /> kinh te - thucmg mai Vift - Trung nhdng, ddm bdo sy thong nhit song giir<br /> 2.1. Phuotngphdp tiep can nguyen tdc hdnh ddng tir trung uong tdi dia<br /> r<br /> phuang, giiia cdc ngdnh vd chinh quyen cdc<br /> Nghien curu qud trinh hgp tac kinh te, cip, giiia chinh quyen cdc cap vd doanh<br /> thuang mai cua phia Trung Qudc vdi Vift nghifp, giiia cdc nhd qudn ly vd nhd nghien<br /> Nam tir nam 1991 din 2010 cho thiy dd la cdu, that chdt che, ndng ddng.<br /> each tilp cdn cd tinh toan thuc tl, "chuyen<br /> nghiep" dk dat dugc lgi ich vd cd tim nhin Nghien cuu qud trinh hgp tdc kinh tl,<br /> chiln luge, tinh tdi todn cue, dang trdn trgng thuang mai ciia Vift Nam vdi Trung Qudc<br /> <br /> <br /> QUAN Lt KINHTE Q<br /> SJi 43 (9+10/2011)<br /> roi KINH NGHIEM THlTC TIEN BAN V^ HOP TAC KINH T ^ THL/ONG MAI VI^T NAM,,<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> tir nam 1991 din 2010 la cdch tilp c^n vira phfa Trung Qu6c ciing cin hilu ban hodn<br /> chay vira xIp hang, thilu thyc tl, chua cdnh cy the ciia Vift Nam hifn nay.<br /> chuyen nghiep dl dieu chinh kip thdi vd Vifc giiy thdng hdnh Vift Nam cip cho<br /> thilu tim nhin chiln luge, chua tinh tdi todn du khdch hay hdng hda Trung Quoc vdo Vift<br /> cue, Viet Nam phdi nghiem tiic xem lai cdch Nam rit sau vd vifc hdng ndng sdn Vift Nam,<br /> tiep can ndy. Ludn gidi cu the dd Id cdch tiep du khdch Vift Nam chi dugc vdo khu vyc rit<br /> can chua dugc chuan bi bdi bdn, thieu phoi hep ben Trung Quoc Id bdt binh ddng ldn<br /> hgp nhip nhdng vd ddm bdo sy thong nhit cd hifn nay md Vift Nam can ddm phdn ngay<br /> nguyen tac hdnh ddng giiia trung uang vd vdi phfa Trung Quoc. Hdng rdo ky thudt dl<br /> dia phuang, giiia cdc ngdnh vd chinh quyen ngan hdng hda chat lugng thip, gay thift hai<br /> cac cap, giiia cbinh quyen cdc cap vd doanh cho sdn xuat vd mat vf sinh mdi trudng la<br /> nghifp, giiia cdc nhd qudn ly vd nhd nghien vifc can khan truang thuc hifn de bdo dam<br /> Cliu, thieu ndng dpng, cdn nhieu ke hd vd ddi hai ben Vift Nam vd Trung Qudc diu thing.<br /> khi tiiy tifn. Nghien cuu, ddm phdn vd ddt nd trong boi<br /> cdnh phdt triin hdnh lang, vdnh dai kmh tl<br /> Ddc bift, khi nghien ciiu tai cdc tinh bien bin vung bao gom cd vifc dinh cu ciia cu dan.<br /> gidi ciia Vift Nam vd Trung Quoc thiy sy<br /> khac bift rd rft nhu sau: Phia Trung Qudc yeu ciu Vift Nam ky<br /> ket ke hoach 5 ndm hay nhihig quy hoach cu<br /> 1. Chinh quyen vd cdc nhd khoa hpc<br /> the khde nhung khdng the trien khai ky ket<br /> Qudng Tdy vd Van Nam ludn tim mpi cdch dl<br /> dugc vi nghien ciru thiy ring, tren thi gidi<br /> ep Vift Nam md cua vd md rdng trao ddi<br /> thuong mai ban niia. Cdc nhd khoa hpc Vift chua cd 2 nude chu quyIn lai k;^ kl hoach 5<br /> Nam thdy rang, ldm vifc vdi cdc nhd khoa hpc ndm kieu ndy. Mdt khde, ndng luc sdn xudt,<br /> ve lihh vyc ndy d Bdc Kinh de chiu ban vi hp kinh doanh cimg vdn hda, xd hpi cua Trung<br /> chia se vd tiep can theo chuan myc qudc tl. Qudc khde xa ddi vdi Vift Nam. Vin dk khai<br /> thdc bd xft tay nguyen khdng chi hifu qua<br /> 2. Cbinh quyen vd can bd, cdng chuc cdc kinh te thdp md cdn ndy sinh nhung van de<br /> tinh bien gidi Vift Nam thay vi phdi nghien khde vl xa hdi, mdi trudng khde.<br /> cuu ky cac de xuat ciia Trung Qudc hodc nlu<br /> khdng hieu cdn hgp tdc vdi cdc nhd khao hpc Biin ddng, vinh bdc bp va xdy dung, quan<br /> d Hd Ndi hay quoc tl thi lai iing hd phia hp ly bien gidi gdn liln vdi kinh tl cua khiu va<br /> manh me bang cdch ky nhilu thda thudn giiia kinh tl biin, cy thi Id khai thdc diu khi, danh<br /> - ' * ^ ^ '<br /> cdc tinh bien gidi hai nude, tham trf cdn sai<br /> cd nguyen tdc. bdt cd, v|n chuyen thuy la cdc van de can<br /> trung thyc, minh bach hgp tdc gidi quylt vdi<br /> 2.2. Quan diim, ca chi chinh sdch, phuang phdp tilp c$n qu6c te chuin muc.<br /> chiin luge, quy hoach vd ki hoqch NIU khdng cd nhiing trao ddi thing thdn tren<br /> Nghien ciru cung chi ra rdng, phia Trung binh difn lu|it phdp qu6c tl va cdc hifp dinh 2<br /> Qudc bao gid ciing chu ddng dua ra nhiing ben dd ky kit rit khd ddm bdo 2 ben diu thu<br /> ndi dung hgp tdc mdi yeu ciu, gdm cd gay dugc kit qud nhu mong dgi, cimg thing. Co<br /> sue ep dk Vift Nam thyc hifn trong khi Vift le day la nhihig vin de hoc biia nhit, phai<br /> Nam ludn bi ddng, thilu nghien ciru ca bdn cimg thing thdn nhm nhan vd ldm vifc cimg<br /> nen hau qud Id nhimg dl xuit iy khdng thyc nhau vdi mpt quan dilm nhit qudn, tdn trpng<br /> hifn dugc hay khdng thu dugc kit qud nhu chii quyIn cua nhau va phdt triin bin viing,<br /> mong dgi. Ddc bift phia Trung Qudc lai phan gin gifi: hda bmh khu vuc, tren thi gidi.<br /> thdnh tuyIn nhd vdi ky nang rit cao ndn ddi Ngudi Vift Nam cin nhm thing vao su thdt,<br /> tdc Vift Nam rit khd kiim sodt. Da din luc binh tinh hanh dOng va khdng nen do tudng<br /> chi nghi din kinh tl d day.<br /> <br /> ^ QUAN Lt KINHTE SO 43 (9+10/2011)<br /> BAN ve HOP TAC KINH TE' THI/ONG MAI VIET NAM... KINH NGHllM THI/C TIEN VEMR<br /> <br /> <br /> 2.3. Qudn ly vd diiu hdnh kinh ti, mai ldn tren gdc dp dieu hdnh quan ly ciing<br /> thuang mai cda Vi^tNam chiu trdeh nhifm hifn nay md phdi xem trach<br /> Nghidn ciru thyc tidn tir vifc thdm hyt nhifm cua ngudi diing dau dang, chinh quyen<br /> thuang mai ldn vdi Trung Qudc, cho thue vd doanh nghifp vl ddng y chu truang, ky<br /> dat lam nghifp tai cac khu vyc nhay cdm vdn bdn cy thi tai Chinh quyIn dia phuang,<br /> bien gidi vd quy hoach 5 nam phdt triin vdi Bd chil qudn, Doanh nghifp.<br /> ban, ddc bift Id vifc cdt cdp tdu binh minh 2 3. Tdc dpng tieu cue den phat trien<br /> vira rdi thi thiy cdng tdc dilu hdnh, qudn ly KT XH Vift Nam<br /> kinh tl, thuang mai... tai vimg nhay cdm,<br /> trpng ylu cua chiing ta chua bit kip thdi 3.1. Tdc dpng den tdi chinh, tien te<br /> cudc vd yeu ciu phdt triin ciia quoc gia. De cap tdi sy diing dan minh bach ve ty<br /> Nghien ciru vf dy cy thi sau dk thiy, khi bilt gid, lai xudt, dy trir bat budc vd su luu chuyen<br /> Trung Qudc mua bit ddng sdn d Tokyo thi cua ddng npi te, cimg thue... nlu ddt vdo<br /> ndi cdc chinh phii Nhat Bdn hpp khin cip hodn cdnh cu the If thudc vdo ngudn vay<br /> xem xet tinh hinh dl cd phuang dn ddi phd... ODA vd thdm hyt thuang mai Vift Trung<br /> trong khi vifc tam tni trdi ph6p, xdy dyng dd qud ldn se ldm tdi tf ban tinh hinh tdi chinh,<br /> thi Tau d Vift Nam hdu nhu nhd chiic trdeh tien te d Vift Nam, cdng them vifc budng<br /> chua nghien cuu, gidi quylt. long qudn ly ngoai hdi tai cdc cua khau. Lam<br /> phdt ciia Vift Nam hifn nay rat cao so vdi cdc<br /> Khi khdo sat kinh te cua khdu tai nhieu<br /> nude trong khu vyc, ngodi nguyen nhan<br /> dia phuang, dac bift Id khu vyc trpng dilm<br /> khdch quan thi nhdp sieu vdi Tnmg Qudc<br /> chua cd can bd ndo d cdc vi tri khde nhau cd<br /> phdi khin truang nghien ciiu nghiem tiic tir<br /> y kien chi dao hay td thai dp bat binh khi thdy<br /> nguyen nhdn chu quan. Vi du ngdnh dft may,<br /> ngudi budn lau ngang nhien mang hang lau<br /> da giay Id ngdnh sdn xuat quan trpng vi ddng<br /> Trung Qudc vdo Viet Nam. Cdn bd lanh dao<br /> gdp gid tri xudt khiu d nude ngheo vd gidi<br /> Khu kmh tl cua khiu qudc tl quan trpng bifn<br /> quyet vifc ldm d mdt qudc gia cd lgi the lao<br /> minh trong budi sdng di khdo sdt hifn trudng<br /> ddng. Md hinh sdn xuit, kinh doanh van la<br /> din gin 10 iin Id dan ngheo di hai lin/ngay,<br /> nhdp nguyen phu lieu tir Tnmg Qudc, gia<br /> mdi iin dugc 30 nghin (2009), trong khi ai<br /> cdng nen gid tri qudc gia thu dugc dat khodng<br /> cung bilt nlu khdng cd bdo ke thi ke thu gom<br /> 15 din 18%. bilu ndy khdng thi trdeh cd<br /> hdng lau ldm gi cd dat sdng.<br /> phia ban md thyc sy Id ylu kem ciia chiing ta.<br /> Nghien cuu thdng ke thiy ring, khdi Quan trgng ban, nlu Viet Nam khdng cd<br /> lupng trao doi hang hda Vift Nam vd Tnmg nghien cdu kip thdi khi cd chiln tranh tiln tf<br /> Qudc tren dit liln trong nhung ndm gin day nhit dinh phin thua thift ddn ta, chinh phii ta<br /> ludn thip ban nhilu so vdi tdng sd hdng hda phdi gdnh chiu.<br /> Tnmg Qudc nhap khiu. Cimg vdi bdi hpc<br /> xuit khiu lau tdi 19 trifu tin than, dilu ndy 3.2. Ddu tuphdt triin<br /> cho thiy mdt lugng ldn hdng hda ldn di bdng Hifu qud diu tu cua Vift Nam ngdy cdng<br /> dudng thuy md Vift Nam Id mdt qudc gia kem, bilu hifn ngay d chi tieu ICOR. 6 bdi<br /> biin hay dudng ndo nu-a thi vifc qudn ly, dilu ndy, tdc gid nhin nhdn tu gdc dp nhap sieu<br /> hdnh kinh tl, thuang mai vdi Trung Qudc cin thiy ring, vifc nhdp khiu nhung thilt bi lac<br /> nghien cuu ky, cd ddi sdch todn difn ban. hau, tham chi cu ddi vdi nhd mdy dudng, nhd<br /> Khdng thi cd dl nha thiu Trung Qudc mdy xi mdng, nhd mdy nbift difn... se dnh<br /> thing thiu nhd may dien nhung lai c h ^ van hudng nghiem trpng din phdt triin nhanh,<br /> hdnh dugc hay viec cho thue dit lam nghifp bin vung vi nang suit thip, cham van hdnh...<br /> vimg bien nhay cdm hoac tham hut thuang Nhung nhd may nbift difn hifn nay Id mdt vi<br /> <br /> <br /> QUAN Lt KINH TE<br /> Sd'43 (9+10/2011)<br /> yi^l^ KINH NGHIEM THIJC TIJN BAN Vg HOP TAc KINH Tg THUONG MAI VIgT NAM..<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> du sinh ddng md dien ndng bao gid cung di thi sd thiy h§u qud ldn khi ldm dn vdi doanh<br /> trudc mdt budc. Trung Quoc cin phdi d6i nghifp vd ca quan hdi quan... Trung Qu6c tir<br /> mdi cdng nghf dl tilt kifm ndng lugng, ndng tit cd cdc khau. Cy thi ban, nhilu doanh<br /> cao nang suit vd chit lugng hdng hda diu ra nghifp Vift Nam bj phd sdn khi budn bdn vdi<br /> nen hp phdi bd. Loai bd thi hp phdi bdn ho$c doanh nghifp Trung Quoc vdi 2 chieu thirc<br /> Id sit vyn hay Id hdng hda cii vd ai cin thi Id: I, Dua hdng sang hp mua vdi gid cao<br /> mua nen d gdc dp thi trudng thi doanh nghifp trong hai th$m chi ba iin vd iin thiir tu mang<br /> Trung Quoc dung. Ban hdng Trung Quoc sang hp mua hdng hpn trd sau vd quyt ludn; 2,<br /> khdng ep doanh nghifp, Bp ngdnh Vift Nam Sang ldm vifc rit hodnh trdng, md LG vd<br /> phdi mua thilt bi mdy mdc chit lugng thip, mua hdng thi phdi trd trudc, sau dd khdng<br /> dd qua su dyng. Loi cua chung ta Id chua xdy thiy hdng vl vd sang kiim tra thi Id doanh<br /> dung dugc hdng rdo ky thuat (gidi phdp bOu nghifp ma... Tuy nhidn, phia doanh nghifp<br /> hifu nhit) vd ca chi, chfnh sdch diy dii, ngdn Trung Qu6c cung chju thilt thdi kilu ndy.<br /> chdn doanh nghifp mua dk chdn lai hdng hda<br /> 3.4. QuSc phdng an ninh, an sinh xShgi<br /> loai ndy. Mua hay khdng diu ty chiing ta<br /> quylt dinh, dd Id Bp chu qudn, dd Id chu tjcb Nlu bdn rpng ra nfi:a thi tham hyt thuong<br /> tap dodn, dd Id gidm doc doanh nghifp, dd Id mai giiia Vift Nam vd Trung Qu6c se cdn<br /> con ngudi cu thi... Ai chiu trdeh nliifm lap ldm dnh hudng din qudc phdng an ninh vd an<br /> hdng rdo ky thudt ndy vd ai chiu trdeh nhifm sinh xd hpi, ddc bift d vung bien gidi vd gidm<br /> phdi thyc hifn nd thi Vift Nam phdi ty ldm. muc sdng cua ngudi dan, tdng ty If hd ngh^o<br /> Khi da nhdp gidy chuyin cdng nghf kem, cu vd cdc khd khdn y tl, vdn hda, gido due. Mdt<br /> se cdn keo theo mit vf sinh mdi trudng vd xd vi dy khde Id vifc xuit nhap khiu hdng hoa<br /> ly se phdi chi tiln, hon niia ngudi dan, cdng ndng sdn dk minh chirng phia ban ludn di<br /> nhdn se chiu d nhiem... trudc chung ta. Ndm loai qud xuit khiu chii<br /> lyc ciia Vift Nam vdo Trung Quoc sau mpt<br /> 3.3. Sdn xudt, kinh doanh vd vi$c ldm thdi gian ddi budng long thi den ndm 2008,<br /> Doanh nghifp vd ndng ddn Vift Nam Trung Quoc da yeu ciu Vift Nam phdi co<br /> dang bi thua thift ngay tren sdn nhd. Dudi xuit su. Trudc kia nhilu ngudi cho ring<br /> ddy Id vi dy thift hai 3 iin do diu tu xdy dyng Trung Quoc sdn xuit hang hda ndng sdn chdt<br /> nhd mdy nbift difn vdi Trung Qudc: Diu tu lugng thip dl ban sang Vift Nam nhung thuc<br /> mua thilt bi chit lupng kem (iin 1 thift hai tl khdng phdi nhu v|iy. Nhfing vy siia, banh<br /> vdo ngdn sdch nhd nude, vdn doanh nghifp), bao vd ngp dpc thyc phim ma phia ban cdng<br /> chua van hdnh dugc nen khdng cd sdn phim bo thiy ring, Trung Quoc c6 chu y din van<br /> dl bdn (iin 2 thift hai do doanh nghifp khdng dl nay nhung chua kiim sodt hit, chua xay<br /> thu hdi vdn...), thilu difn dk phdt triin sdn dyng dugc tieu chuan diy du ma qudc gia<br /> xuit, kinh doanh (iin 3 thift hai cho xd hpi gan 1,4 ty ngudi. Tuy nhidn, tai sao din nay<br /> chung). Theo mdt hudng khde, doanh nghifp Vift Nam chua ydu ciu phia Trung Qudc<br /> vd ndng dan Vift Nam chiu thift thdi cung cung cip diy dii xuit sd hdng hda, ngay ca<br /> khdng dudi 3 iin khi xuit khiu qud nbift ddi hdng hda ndng sdn dl ldm cdn cd chiing ta<br /> sang thi tnidng Tnmg Qudc. Khi chinh vy, cd nhap khiu dk bao vf ngudi tieu dung. Nhu<br /> nhieu ly do phia ban han chi nhap khiu ldm vdy, nlu nhari dan mua hang hda ndng san<br /> viec xuit khiu dinh trf, phdi dd di, gdy thift Trung Quoc ve dl sd dyng se bi thift thdi, nii<br /> hai nghiem trpng vd tit ylu day ciing cd l5i ro va gdy ra loai bfnh tdt. Nhilu cda khiu ca<br /> phia Vift Nam do chua xay dyng kho bdi bdo ngay, cd thdng rit it hang thdng quan nhung<br /> qudn ndng sdn, do chua nang cao trinh dp sdn phia ban tilp tuc thuc ep cac tinh bien gioi<br /> xuat, kinh doanh ndi chung. Tir hai vi du cu md ciia vdi ly do thuc diy trao ddi kinh tl,<br /> <br /> U QUAN Lt KINHTE<br /> So 43 (9+10/2011)<br /> BAN vg HOP TAC KINH Tg THUONG MAI VIET NAM. KINH NGHIEM THlTC TIEN VEMR<br /> <br /> <br /> thuang mai khi da xay dyng ha ting manh. Viet Nam vd Ddng Hung Trung Qudc,<br /> Diln hinh la vifc xay dyng Khu HTKT xuyen 2009.<br /> bien gidi vd md cdc cap chg bien gidi, trong Vifn hdn lam thuang mai Trung Qudc<br /> khi chiing ta qudn ly bien mdu rit kem, chi (2009), Nghien cim khd thi "khu hgp tac<br /> gay thift hai cho sdn xuat, kinh doanh do<br /> kinh tl xuyen qudc gia Ddng Ddng - Vift<br /> hdng lau tudn vdo va xa hon Id qudc phdng,<br /> Nam va Bang Tudng - Trung Qudc.<br /> an ninh chinh tri khdng ddm bdo. Rd rdng<br /> ngudi lao ddng tir tat cd cdc thdnh phin diu UBND tinh Lang Son (2008), D I dn khu<br /> bi thift hai do mat vifc hay thdm chi do lao hgp tac kinh tl xuyen bien gidi Ddng<br /> dpng Tnmg Qudc sang. Ddng, Lang Son.<br /> 4. Ket luan UBND tinh Lang San (2008), D I dn khu<br /> Nhu vay, Chien luge hgp tdc kinh te, hgp tdc kinh tl bien gidi Ddng Dang,<br /> thuang mai Vift - Trung can phdi dugc ddt Lang San.<br /> len bdn nghi sy cip cao vd la vifc quan trpng Cdc bdi tham luan vl hgp tac kinh tl bien<br /> cin lam ngay. Dd Id thdng difp tdc gidi bdi gidi Dong Dang, Lang Son, Vift Nam tai<br /> bdo ndy mudn gui tdi ban dpc vd hy vpng lai Nam Ninh vd Cdn Minh, Trung Qudc.<br /> se dugc tilp tyc bdn vl ndi dung chiln luge<br /> Tdng eye Thdng ke vd cac Chi cue Thdng<br /> hgp tdc kinh tl, thuang mai trong sd bdo sau.<br /> ke tinh, Thdng ke qudc gia va thdng ke<br /> mdt sd tinh bien gidi 15 nam gin day.<br /> Vifn Chiln luge Phdt triin (2008), Quy<br /> hoach phdt triin 2 hdnh lang, mdt vdnh<br /> TAI LIEU THAM KHAO dai Vift Nam Trung Qudc.<br /> Ky ylu "hdi thdo vl xay dung thi dilm Cdc chinh sdch vl din kinh tl cua khiu vd<br /> khu hgp tdc kinh tl bien gidi Mdng Cdi - khu kinh tl cua khiu 2010.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> QUAN Lt KINHTE g]<br /> So 43 (9+10/2011)<br />
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