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genki 1 an integrated course in elementary japanese1 phần 3

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  1. &&EX. - 5 x/ta rhh1L1 F = /~"Tlrf-lr*, 7. 9 7 1) n2 {Q I gakusee desu ka. Mearii s an wa Rondon daigaku no 8. i= C L 3 A 3 t z i Q k * ~ \ c i l " * k ~ , E ?j Takeshi san w a ninensee desu ka. -f i xlta L ~ ~ ; & A + ? L \ T T & ~ ~ 9. 2 - 3 Suu san w a ichinensee desu ka. 5 E h Y k 1 0. a / < - - 3 h i d tah*~~TTh~, Robaato san wa yonensee desu ka. I 1 I I I I British Japanese Korean American Japanese Nationality U. of London Tozai Univ. U. of Arizona Tozai Univ. Seoul Univ. School (Japanese business Japanese computer M ajor history teacher) 3rd year 2nd year 4th year 4th year Year B. Pair Work-Ask your partner whose belongings items (1) through (7) are. Your partner will refer t o the picture on t h e next page and answer the questions. * & I ) b l Example: A : Z h G d % 7 ' ) - 3 h @SL\,
  2. * & 9 b b ajz 97')- Mearii Yoo ko &a@ #"Lh@ 3 @b (Review Exercises) 1/ A. Role Play-One s tudent is a store attendant. The other is a customer. Use Dialogue I as a model.
  3. B. Role Play-One student is a waiter/waitress. The other student goes to a restaurant. Look at the menu below and order some food or drink, using Dialogue II as a model.
  4. Pair work @ C. Example: A : 2 XlV9 tA t: ( l ; T T h a , ikura desu ka. Enpitsu wa Hyaku en desu.
  5. Pair Work @ D. 6 TT f i x o Example: Customer : z 6 3 13 ( l\ Kono hon wa ikura desu ka. Store attendant : C=+X/iY+ ( Z h TT, Nisen hyaku en desu. Card B I E. x (3) Part 11. You are a store attendant. TeIl Part I. You are a customer. Ask for the the customer how much each item is. price of items (1)-(5).
  6. Pair Work @) A : LkLba fs#'L@ h'sTTi3', Example: kasa desu ka. dare no Kore wa Kl&'lt> & +TTo 6 :%7'1-3/La kasa desu. Mearii san no Picture B -f 5 2- Takeshi Suu Mearii Yamashita sensee Robaato
  7. Classroom Iln t h e Useful Expressions I understand./ I understood. b 5 3 3 I# k, 1. Wakarimashita. a %&, I don't understand./I don't know. & ?$%!I Wakarimasen. rJ bh7-C ( ~ SSL~~ Please speak slowly. ( @=I Yukkuri itte kudasai. & 9 ~6 Z* f2-3L Please say it again. ~ f I{ L L~ jtte kudasai. Moo ichido I G17Z 37T(?S3hl Please wait. Chotto matte kudasai.
  8. ?-ba$g% Making a Date a Mary and Takeshi are talking. @ On Sunday morning, at Mary's host family's.
  9. Takeshi: Mary, what do you usually do on the weekend? Mary: Let's see. I usually study at home- But I sometimes see movies. Takeshi: I see , . . then, would you like to see a movie on Saturday? - .. ) Mary: Saturday is not a good day. (lit-, Saturday is a little bit [inconvenient] Takeshi: Then, how about Sunday? Mary: That's fine. Mary: Good morning. Host mother: Good morning. You are early, aren't you? Mary: Yes, I'm going to Kyoto today. 1 will see a movie in Kyoto. Host mother: Good. Around w h t time will you come back? Mary: Around nine. Host mother: How about dinner? Mary: I will not eat. Host mother: I: see. Well, have a nice day. Mary: Good-bye.
  10. Enterfuinment a n d Sports movie music magazine sports d ate (romantic, not calendar) tennis TV video tape; VCR Foods a nd Drinks $fi%@x ak, 5 Z "II h bf-eakfast s 3 t-f i%% sake; alcohol %% green tea coffee 3 -t- *t 3XI Y%&t& dinner X/ hamburger lunch &@I@ $ water Places home; house t15 home; house; my place * 9% language Iab school T ime morning &5 tomorrow bi L k when L \9 today * 915 * at about tonight Z h23*."h weekend * L@929 Saturday * r 'k-iilP * l t G k 5v Sunday * Words that appear in t he dialogue
  11. 3 k\tr& every day 4tE -@a 3 t\t$X/ every night U-verbs (destinatian t I % to g o /) * { L\ to go back; to return * ha&& (destination i = . to listen; to hear (- 2 '4 (" (-4) to drink a$ )' to speak; to talk 1 Q 3- 3 (hng?cage 2 l T ) (-2) to read to get up (- % ) to eat to sleep; to go to sleep to see; to look at; to watch Irregular Verbs < to come ( destinatks 1 ~ / 2 ) b ( -4) to do * - jt-g (-2) to study * + L ~ L ~ T &% % T G good early Adverbs not much ;ti 3 9 4- negative not a t all -E +?* k 4- negative &% usually * f;~\ft\ A* a little * Gdr7Z sometimes - r3r"3 Q.;T k< often; much &. Expressions + =, That's right.; k t me see. * T 1a T2 hut * T& How about . . . ?; How is . . . ? * z *? TjW
  12. G r a m m a r I$3 1 i% 3 Verb Conjugation Verbs in J apanese conjugate, or t ake various shapes. I n this lesson, we l earn three forms: (1) the "dictionary forms," ( ) the present tense affirmative forms, a nd (3) t he present 2 tense negative forms.' T here are t wo k inds of verbs t hat follow regular conjugation p atterns, a nd a n example of each is beloiv. 1 1 ru-verb u-verb / verb bases i k tabe ~ E < (to 9 0) (to eat) dictionary forms LI 5) S Z T &
  13. I n later lessons, we will have many opportunities to refer to the parts like $k< and E 3 , t Ir which come before 3 T and 3 * A in the long forms. For the sake of ease of reference, we will call these parts (same as bases with ru-verbs, and bases plus i with a-verbs) "stems." In addition to ru-verbs and u-verbs, there are two "irregular verbs." Note that the voweIs in their bases are different in the short (dictionary) forms and the long forms. irregular verbs < Q (to come) 35 (to do) dictionary forms $ 25 l/S* present, affirmative tBeh 3beh present, negative 1 b sterns These two verbs a re also used to form compound verbs. In this lesson, we learn the verb &S 96 , which conjugates just like the verb -;f 8. * L?'i? It is important t o remember which verb belongs to which conjugation class. I t is a good idea, therefore, t o memorize each verb as a set: instead of memorizing just the dictionary form, try to memorize the dictionary form and t he present tense affirmative, like ;T;i- < - LL $7 3 f T. This is especiaIly important with verbs that end with the hiragam b , because tl t hey m ay be irregular verbs like 3- b and ( 6 , o r ru-verbs, or u-verbs whose bases just happen to end with the consonant r . If you know the verb classes and the rules that apply t o them, you know why it is wrong t o say X IL 1 3 9 and XHir 4 -f.' d'* K EB (= a ru-verb) (= an u-verb that ends with 5) fiz B mi verb bases kaer W,d$/Sbt% $I'T S!9%6/IIbD$Wh, long forms h'x P W % E3 u E! stems 7i'X a9 'Things are n ot as b ad as you might expect after reading the above paragraph. The key lies i n the second from t he last syllable in a dictionary f orm. T he irregular verbs set aside, i f you see the vowels a , o , or u right before the final 4 , you can be absolutely sure t hat they are a-verbs. ( We have n ot l earned any such verbs yet.) U nfortunately f or us, the logic does n ot follow in the other direction; there are m-verbs a nd u-verbs t hat have t he vowels i and e before t he final 4 . 2 5 has the vowel e before 4 and is a I> ' R ru-verb. n- L 8 , on the other hand, has the same s ound sequence, but is a n u-verb.
  14. In this lesson we learn about a dozen v e r b that describe basic human actions. Thew are often called "action verbs," and the "present tense'' of these verbs either meam (I) that a pezs'son habitually or regularly engage in these activities, o r (2) that a person will, or is planning to, perform these activities in -the future. Habitual actions: 1 often watch T V. -3 kI3 Z 3 ~ "1 3"b3X/ 2 3 - kkxl, Mary sometimes doesn 't eat breukfarf. $c % 7 I) A i f: Future actions: 1 will go to K yoto t aorrow. Sue will n of return home today. Nauns used in sentences ~ rnerd1y ust be foll.2awed b y gar&icIes, which indicate the m relations that the nouns bear to the verbs.' Ia this lesson, w e learn four particles: T kc, , ", and 8 . . T T he particle Tindicates where the event described by the verb takes placee4 HLS%T*2%&&T0 I will read books i the library. z r *&X-ISX. 1 -i G z T t / Y $ R f T o I will watch TV at home. L, (L The particle G = has many meanings, b ut here we will learn two: (1) the goal toward which things move, and (2) the time a t which a n event takes pIace. (I) goal of movement I will lzot go t o school today. 1 milk retarn home. poken language, particles are often "dropped."W e will learn more about such cases in Lesson 15. 3 ~ sn "In later Iessons, we will be introduced to verbs that require particles other than T to express location. - -. - -- - - .
  15. (2) time I will go to K yatu on Sunday- 1 will g o t o bed at elmera. (Some time words stand alone, without the particle C tagging along, which will be : discussed in Section 4 below.) Approximate time references can be made by substituting 2"5 or r'5 1: for t :. Thus, -+-%
  16. I will go buck i September. n You do not use t he particle C: with (I) time expressions defined relative to the present moment, such a s "today" and "tomorrow," (2) expressions describing regular intervals, such as "every day," and (3) the word for "when." 1 will c m e t m r r o w . 1 watch T V ezlery ewming. When will you go? You normally do not use : G with (1) the parts of a day, like "in the morning" and "at night," and (2) t he word for "weekend." Unlike words like i L f z and 4P!! above, how- h 3 rxrrx. ever, these words are sometimes followed by G :, depending on styles, emphases, and personal preferences. I read the newspaper i the morning. a What will you do on weekends? I= present tense negative verb, plus the question particle) to You can use 2 the extend an invitation. I t should be noted t hat its affirmative counterpart, 2 TBs,canlzot be so used. Thus a sentence like &5TlatLQ :t 3 33. can only be construed as a question, U5 not as an invitation. What do you say to having lunch with me? S ou~ds reat. g Wikl you p lay temzis with me? m mmt). Um,it's slightly (zmmoenimffor me n t thiq J a p a u e sentences are fairly flexibie i €hearrangement of ekments that appew in them. n Generally, sentences are made up of s e~esai oun-particle sequences followed by a verb n entence-finalparticle such as a=, &, QP an adjective, which in turn is often fallowed by a s ou k . Among ihe noun-partick sequences, their relative orders are b a large extent &ee.
  17. A typical sentence, therefore, looks like the following, but several other arrangements of noun-particle sequences are also possible. a+zg % BL$T, T L : bf:L ?ii Lkd-X. 1 - 1 3X, Y +32? place verb time object topic 1 will study Japanese a'= the &raw today. wo wa 4=%tv5 3 % - dt: Lt; U *f:L 5 .5 goal topic frequency time verb I ofken go back h ome at around s e v a . You can add a frequency adverb such as -3&El (everyday), k ( (often), and Z 3 ~ ' 3 r,l-tj (sometimes) to a sentence to describe how often you do something. 1 s mtimes g o to a coffee shop. I n thisjesson, we also learn two adverbs which describe how i zfrequmt an activity or an -._ -- --/-- (never; not at all) and 2 3 ' (not often; not very much). These adverbs 5I event is; +??A+Fk -' anticipate the negative at the end of t h e sentence. If you use * X/+frt or 2 2 1, in other 5 words, you need to conclude the sentence with 1* A. I do mt watch TV a t all. T akahi dues nut s fudy much. As we saw i n Lesson I, the particle M presents ~e topic of one's utterance ("As for item X, i t is such # at. .."). I t puts forward the item that you want t o talk about and comment an, You may have noted that the topic phrases in sentences such as % 7 '1 - 3 t tME%ik S Lh&ict> TT ( M a r y is a third-year student), and &&L ~3SBE3id:4B +S?T ( M y major is Japanese % * A,&& ItL 2 language), are the subjects of those sentences. A topic phrase, however, need not be the subject of a sentence- We see three sentences in the dialogue of this lesson where rmonsubject phrases are made topics with the help o the particle kt. f rrr 'I - -%A, s s r a t = t ~ L t~\ ~ ~~ ~ T ~, Mary, mhuf do jorr u sually do FIE^ w e~kmd? bj33
  18. + s3 Ea3@c=.SSji3g-, 3x IliZ t> I'm gozng t o K yoto todoy. In the above two examples, C promotes time expressions as the topic of each sentence. Its d effects can be paraphrased like these: "Let's talk about weekends; what do you do on weekends?" "Let me say what I will do today; I will g o to Kyoto." R Z*ldAfld ? r r/v How about dinner? In this example, Id is used rn directing the listener's attention and thereby inviting a comment or completion of a sentence. You may also note that the broached topic, R t*ld rzd, A , does not stand in subject relation t o the verb, but is rather its direct object. ~s!/-b Notes@) Expression fli
  19. Practice ;ncv L93 @ aZ K P * Z ~ % T h k I%tb @ - 23 and --bI?h. A. Change the following verbs into B. Look at the pictures below and make sentences using the cues. @ (a) Add t he appropriate verbs t o the following direct objects. % %PS$k3To $-k% Example: + .- 3. > 7 L -, < (1) 7 Ex. %% - 7 O r;< L coffee shop/3:00 college/every day
  20. (b) Add the place to the above sentences. E!/%@-c="%%T L ??s-43 To Example: library + Y YLrd.A 2 C. L w k at the pictures below and make sentences using the cues. @ %@6i i=e 3 T o 3 Example: go to the post office + WjWX.3r tb ( ) come t o school Ex. go to the post office 2 (I) go to the library (5) return t o the U. S. ( ) return home (3) come t o the coffee shop 4 Sunday tomorrow questions, using verbs we have learned in this lesson. D. Pair Work-Make El~@T%S~S4$.T6~o A Example: L I "c-t 8 : 2 2 , % & 2 - j - , / ~ \ ~ \ 2a, A $ * & , % a

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