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genki 1 an integrated course in elementary japanese1 phần 7

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genki 1 an integrated course in elementary japanese1 phần 7

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  1. 3 (disconnected from the affirmative, the past tense is used both with words like 3 present) and t i ("already," connected with t he present). ? At33a,3%5%2 L d- tk, $L,ld%?j~&~&~?zo and L n(t:r> bt:L L a
  2. & Lf=SR&pib6-hab, : L I A X L3ri ~ Alf+R%Bt3Td L it& AM L I will study this e ve~ing, eccame we will have an encam tomorrow. b (= We w l have aft exam t morrow, therefore, I will study this e vming-) il 9S&h7khaL;, *haCf2+thTLfto ? t- T We didn't go out, because i was cold. t ( = I t was cold, therefore, 1 didg't go o uA) Note that the resulting order of elements resembles that of a "therefore" sentence more closely than that of a "because" cIause in English. Before the conjunction hS6 , you find both the long and short forms. T hus the 75% 1; clauses in the above examples can be rewritten as i L S RhP& 3 T h xi3 and Sh.9ft TTh- h 9 2 t- L IiX. h . The long form before 2~ b is more polite, and is frequently found in request and ' suggestion sentences. & G:3a!a%d2;fj9 &T&lL;,-->$1:RC-$T3a L k 3 . x 3- k . i: i\?L 1\ Let's go to see Kabuki 1 have tickets. 'The long form before z k i3 is inappropriate when the entire sentence ends in a short f om, however. Thus it is inappropriate to say:X S ha7 f" T Th3I ;, & hhlf23'7 k c $2 T
  3. , $!#El P r a c t i c e h Lw5 Short Forms Past : 1 A. Verbs (a) Change the following verbs into t he past affirmatives. haL \?= 75' ( Example: 4 (b) C hange the following verbs into the past negatives. -hihi%$'7 ?. Example: 5'. ( 2 - T-c& 3 - Tt2 4. I trhd? b 1. & & ( to throvi a way) 8 . *X/k ( T 6 3. 1 ( i 6. t d U 2 b 7.9{& a 11. ~ 1 5 12. $ A , Y ~~5 9. i$lbq lo. ( 16. q'if-;t;' 1 4. 9 f z - j 1 3. S i 3 2 6 15. h x k ? , $ @ B. Adjectives and Nouns (a) Change t h e following into t h e past affirmatives. Example: 7"z -ha L 1 ~~PS~r3~7~~ + -.f,L3f?3fz G?X,3 2 + -+ $
  4. (b) Change the following into t he past negatives. @ Informal Speech A. Using the cues below, m ake questions about yesterday in informal speech. How do you answer those questions? @ Example: ?- t W & 3,b k Q : 4@.jTLY2R?:? + k. h, E7t=,/.j 9 A , R Q $ x qf z , A :3 k k t 0Y2&*8 1. f : & *T& 2. SA, (3' 3 . B S@T$i?% 9 & z L / " fZ/v h- 1 4. ? G ? ? % E T & r +-i i&TH=T6 5. ' I 9x3 6 . &??Gi:&? C A Y S 32%2& 7. B11 f;X.Z' b 8. $%&I* < hf?li S.%i:%%2rSx13$ 9. T/L h d F< 1 0, ~ 2F~-Y-~f~~ *. -2 .7f $.'A % % b j & 11. 2giy*bzfi< 12. h+ Ir %r%T$ 13. i/L i 14. F '47:ztTgb .Y G
  5. Make questions about childhood in informal speech. How do you answer those questions? @ Example: Z % Irk I Q :T E a e . Zf R tE 7 i ? ?z + r :rt ~ /c t=,/-j A, X a U e Q h x 9f:, 5 XI, 5 A: Z%t57 I fd 5 I T& 3 @lZ%f2.ot=tE~ltd fh d %% A. Make a guess about the childhoods of the people below. @ t Example: 2 %, T* ?z h so ITX. 3 Q : L o3ACATiEa%, %%T t f ~ 6'~ + ;rt ur r3 lfk3 t~ 4%Ll&To : I dLh, Z R I ? ' =Z~t A s if/" 3 Z ~ ~ : ' Q & ~ ~ ~= ~Z \ 3 -3 U ? Z ,0 L \L\&, i4 b 3 IT/" (a) 7F > f l Z 3 L j T (about ~ a d o n n a )
  6. (b) EI ~*Z@%*~Z~L\Tyour Japanese teacher) (about z W hWL! I 6 . Choose one classmate and guess what they were l ike as a child using the following characteristics. A. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions about his/her childhood and report t o the class using - -&EgTL\ZLfi. 11 :ib Q L ? ' : Example: L\ B. What would these people say/have said? Make up your own quote for the following people. s & +g C ? L f = z $ - ; , ~ ~ ~ \ @ 30 7 ' - Example: jf ( : L I 5
  7. 7 ~ 9 " / >2) I I ~ F Z - ~ ~ X ' ) - Ex. 3 a71t';lz%~Z'*- ? / f 9 1 L - (1) ( (4) @ 1[my] mother) 13 n A. Look at the picture below and a nswer the questions. 3 Example: €El f: 35 7. Q :E3+3hiiZ*QlAT?ha, + vr of i. fz A : b &rib2$*l-f.lil~\&hTT,\L - - f - 2 % T ~ l \ ATT, f i ~b vz L5 rP Y 4
  8. of you looks at picture A below and the other looks at picture B. Pair Work-One B (p. 188). Ask each other questions and identify all the people in the picture. k L5 L 2 3 h i d ~''C?lh"i.'~fi', A : $; Example: Pr_- :~ ~ ~ " ~ R T L G A T T , B z A L' Picture A Ask which of the people are the following: f-zs -3 1. - 2. 3 k j L 3 . ~ :-L\$C+ 4. L . i r C. Class Activity-Descri be your classmates. The class is divided into two groups, A and 6 .Each member of group A acts out something and freezes in the middle of doing so. Members of group B answer the teacher's questions, using - -TLl5APT. Take turns when finished. U& Example: Teacher : T 4 7 3 A, C i F ~AT"p;tra, Dr Student : * $Z$ZLTi:L\bATT, r jL:/< ( 32 It @ A. Answer the following questions using bk--?IL\bl2h. L ?=fia, X/ ?? &< 2 Q :&j& Example: f: Y 'S
  9. B. Pair Work-Ask if your partner has done . . . yet. Example: 352 6 2 &< 4 + A, f: H#Mk:*%n 1. L 2. : i g t c X b t;h-%/, iill 3 . Lvf-%% Lesson 10) ??% L' -bY ?. ( d 3 -2R k c 8 ( 4. 75';: A li &W,b 5. h (a n ame of newly released movie) 6. 5 3{ (a name of newly released CD) +* 7. v76 & 7, a (a n ame of c urrent best-selling novel) A. Match up the phrases to make sense.
  10. B. Complete the foltowing sentences adding reasons. %&75WL*&& "I 2 * A o & >b , 1. Ak -I L T ~ : T o\ ~ h XL;. Et*%%%i% L 2. z'
  11. B. Answer t he following questions. 2, T 9 - 2 % ( 9 h z k . f T - P h h , c= 7 kJ U 3 . % &c3h3*3Tj-r3>, -f %f E!%@e, < S 2 f k A 2 3 - h ~ ~ k 4. rl 5 3 7 0, ~9 t a w , 5. { ?A IT 6. &q@S*Elbirthday) I ~ f l & ~ & , L \ $ t k - h h , ( & f =h.Lii d 3 1 h& Q t: T :t-Ltzm$ Tt b b 3 t k 6 x 0 r* bt 7 . +B. 9 ~ x r a + m = w t4 t ? z $ ~ , ~ + t : , % b $ ha, 93 3 Q/" r 1iu &'?LC 31 i i ; TTY~~~ 8. t 1.P 9 . f %a%. k < & Ti& z sev+3 f, L r rt h L 10. z ''AQEa b k - T - W + 9 T 6ao Tbd t t'p, ,gew, - Lt r 11. + ~ o i $ ~ ~1 ~ s , cX,r . Lllh. C Th. 12. & 3?=9ETIJ. Z % 2 X $ - ' Y ~ ~ J . % ~ ~ 9 3 - f * h o & 3 { 1: I IX,
  12. Pair Work @ B. k L2 Example: I I picture B . Ask which of the people are the following:
  13. There are two kinds of words for colors. Group 1: LI-adjectives I I fi b i X~J> white black . red bag I like red the best. I Group 2: n ouns I * ', 7* - 2 % % green 1) 1 a3 %3 7 I3 light blue & I k Tr.6 F>7 pink ( I silver % $/;/,b~.t-- ?kt\& a in order to make noun phrases. There words need - >B/7*1]>Ql-k-9- green sweater =I ' Here are s ome words related t o colors. You look pale.. b hck a d white picture hair. Mary hQs Blo&
  14. &* #&(n-f;z Vacation Plans Winter "srs, ifww & Ft"r @ At a travel agency.
  15. Mary: It is getting cold. Takeshi: Yes. Mary, what will you d o at winter break? Mary: I am planning to go to Korea or Taiwan, but I haven't decided yet. Takeshi: That's nice. Mary: Which do you think is better, Korea or Taiwan? Takeshi: Mm . . . I think it is warmer in Taiwan. But Sue said that the food was deTicious in Korea. Mary: I s ee. B the way, are you g oing somewhere, Takeshi? y Takeshi: I won't go anywhere, I don't have money, so I will stay here. Mary: Is that so? Then 11 buy some souvenir for you. '1 Takeshi: Wow, t hank you. M a y : I'd like to reserve a plane ticket from Osaka to Seoul. Travel agent: When is it? Mary: December 19. Travel agent: We have a morning flight and an afternoon flight. Mary: A morning flight, please. Can I me a credit card? Travel agent: Yes. Mary: How long does it take to Seoul? Travel agent: About one hour.
  16. Nouns fall 23 3 L\LP doctor 2.3 station ~3ch erson g&5ifa%% p face 3 4 29 season * ? k = s ~b; ~ 73-F credit card ZZt this year soccer ?by&- * '7 s hirt ./ ; life; living 4 &b\hX-3 world *$*L\ bhx-c=) subway T "2 { 4 gloves r r+i3 barber's rs a spring pants J$>',!I VL9 beauty parlor * VXI flight ship; boat 2,&I +,4@5 baseball v p i #~\t'k celebrity * k*( reservation 3 next semester i k \&P-=l ; 3 & 2* apple Warm slow; late cool (weather-not used for thin& cold ( thing/~eo~le) sleepy * Words t hat appear in t he dialogue
  17. easy; simple t o take (amount of tirne/moneyl (no particle) to stay (at a hotel, etc.) (- 1 ); t o become to pay to decide Verb Irregular & ET6 ;izhL@iTB to practice Other and Adverbs Expressions & & ' f%T on foot . . 9~b-C --+I$ best t\%l%k or for . . . months in . . . time; after . . . these days for . . . weeks b y (means of transportation); with (a tool) how; b y what means which which how much; how long . . . years (do something) early; fast
  18. In Japanese, adjectives have the same shape i n noncumparative and comparative sen- tences; there is no alteration as i "great/greater." The idea of comparison is expressed n by adding something to the nouns that are compared. I 1 = A iS more @ r ~ e r M B. B @' property), than A t DMjjbt You can ask for another person's opinion on two things in comparative terms. t ~=?3~133~;hf k AtB ( pro~ert~), = Befween A and B, which i m r e s (property)? e* Z Z''9 3; 9C3 j V ~ TT&a, \L X CX Z ri ~LLF yr Which zs cheaper, k oing by) bm or (by) $rain? I n comparison among three or more items, the degree qualifier k is used. S; 1% \ a271 A tiiL18lbh (property). [(class of i tems) A i the most (property) [ a m g ( a class of items)]. s - > 3*n+T1~ : & ~ ~ ) ~ L \ ~ ; E % X / & $ ~ , L + ~ " S Z , S L ~ = 75 L -. 7~2 Z p Z I ~ F ~ u ~~ ? H& Cri 3' 2 73. 3: 3 -f+, Betwee% Pavarotti, Curreras, and Domingo, who do you think ZS the best s i~ger? 'In r ed life, the phrases A 1% i h.' and B I 1 often appear in the reverse order, making it very easy t o be misled into believing the opposite of what is actually said. Don't rely on the word order, therefore, to decide which item is claimed to be superior. Listen carefully for the words n 3 3 4' and 1 1. C 'There are several alternates for Z -9 t;@ 13 i . They are: ft;b C 5 , F 7 &, and f % 41. Any one of 3 these can be used in question sentences seeking comparisons between two items. Y ' 7 3; a d Z+T f3 e) ( 3 5 are slightly more colIoquia1 than r 'S; b and I f% b m i3 =I .
  19. h h i~\3;t%X/&-h'.k+T~o I ."J.'RY.?.F U r i ?" if: Pavarotti is best, naturally. Note that the words 43 i and Y-;1% re not used in statements of comparison among a three or more items. Normal question words like f zh, Z*&, and a(- are used instead.' When a noun follaws an adjective, and when it is clear what you are referring to, you can replace the noun with the pronoun C T), one." You can use a to avoid repetition. (I 0 4T $ . A . ~ & , ~ k ~ - k - 9 - - ~ $ + 9f b 3 (a=*-5'-) *bW%%-3 o -f0 - < -5 b ha. h f;L C to. I h aw a bkack sweafer. I h ~ o e 9 m e, a . d S L ~ F S ~ R W I a LE ~ - ~ - $- \ ~ \ a -~ ix t t ; , (@=%$I a w &lq ~ C TZ, c* c ," , Lk ULl ?F I w mf to buy casa inexpmsiue dictionary, b gt there were no goad mes. 1+ 1 Ll-adjective LI-adjective + + noun &-ad jeclive %-adjective Similarly, a noun following another noun can be reduced. Here, a sequence of the form "noun, cF) J I Q U ~ ~ ' ' wi1I be reduced t o "noun, fl." You simply omit the second noun. T- 90 ha t t -LtdX- 3 A ahh'tbA/TT&x, ~ l t \ i i ,*&Lt2%T1) 3 - No, that i s M ary'sp. 1s this S ag3 &? k 3 SL~LL~TT, 7 % I J f i m 7 4 ~ 7 ~ ] - A a t & ?H*4) 3j - 4ZCflU Americm ice cream is more dekicioas f kaa Jupawse m. 3The tendency is to use Y h when a list of items is presented, and to use I*bJ- when a group is referred to r, collectively. Compare: 1A ,z*Zsih*Az 3 { b LtTa+T. YhLJr\GCdA333C?h4, =,+. -t Whkh do y ou like best, a pples, tangeriaes, m cham-es? < f
  20. 9 follows verbs in the present tense short forms to describe what a person is planning 9$ to do in the future- You can also use a verb in the negative plus 9 t 1 to describe what you me planning z o t to do, or what you do nof intend to do. + 3% f: @ i ~ t e n do do . . . 9 ) verb (present, short) t '7 - -j-, (bGL L.+ja7 3t.1d)S$.t-k13 L ~ X I Z T - C - X ? ? - $ - &T~ ~ % 1 z&md to play f m ~ i with Tqkeshi thik weekend s &-F*&t3& L k A T t = * Q ~ ~ . 33 T TQ S := 9 2 L f;++/t+r, % L,&*{ Professor Yamushifadoes mt intmxd to come to s chol t ommow. & + Q W , t ~ f i ( 3 S 1T L k i - f Y , Xah" l 3 2 ~ ~ 7 f z 3 ~ f i;3 3 - @ k . T L i ? ~ , 1. -IX: 2 Ti) k I' LT We were p lawna'~o v bit a t empk, b af we diih't, became .the weather was no f good. t The verb 3 5 means "to became," indicating a change. 3 8 f ~ l l a wnouns and both types s of adjectives. - - 3 SRHKZx5 9 fo become a company enaplqyee nouns: %\L-PLG fplItrpClh- B *ZGF)&B&~%L %!I L f z o 3 { I : [EX, : 3 La, St86dyzyznghe Japaaese h g u a g e i s fan %ow ( fbugh it was like fortare hefore). t With L\-adjectives,the final r \ is dropped and ( is added, as in their negative canjuga- tions. A common mistake is to expand the pattern of 3-adjectives and nouns and u s :t with \-adjectives. It is wrong to say, f or example, X @ $-L 1 1: Q 8. W. 3z When an adjective is used with ta' 6 , a question axises whether the sentence describes an absolute change (ex. "it has become warm, hence it is not cold any longern)or a relative change (ex. "it has become warmer, but i t is still cbld"). 3 6 sentences are ambiguous in

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