# genki 1 an integrated course in elementary japanese1 phần 6

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## genki 1 an integrated course in elementary japanese1 phần 6

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Trong thời đại phát triển thì bạn cần phải có một phương pháp học tập thật hiệu quả nếu bạn muốn nghe, nói, đọc, viết tiếng Nhật một cách thành thạo. và Genki 1 một khóa học tích hợp ở tiểu học Nhật Bản thích hợp cho các bạn mới bắt đầu học tiếng nhật

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1. A. Sue is going to the following places t o do the things below. Make sentences like the example. @ -% Fb & - 75'.,i= 3 (Kabuki) Exa A 2RC=E - 3 k I;t;g@i:hll:=3k Sri Z B. For what purpose would you go t o the folIowing places? Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. ExampIe: A : ~ Q l % ~ G = ~ ~ h h ~ # T A ~ ~ $~ i 5 ~ , -- 2,Ll:'L 0 VY Q 2. ~ -,a ~ p - 5 ~ t~ X~ ~ At L 2. ~ ~ ~ -- o UX. fr~cr~. (nationality) A. Answer the following questions. a picture o your family to the class and describe it. f 6 . Class Activity-Show 3. I 11. Own Family 1. Someone I A: Formal Situation B: Informal Situation Else's Family I I &XSL X, Father & tXi S L , .- I :- ci -> L 1 Mother I I I I Older brother G !E 3 h k;X,FtShi X. =.. I;II hI : I S@(;fi4k @ i 3%3iL ! Older sister h f l. r22 rl f I Younger brother f% $$A ;r+t: xir a Younger sister *SX, ,,.;if ,,2+r x r"& &LA/* 4. p- 5. Michiko: T akahi, would you like to have a barbecue party tomorrow? Takeshi: That's nice. Who will come? Michiko: Sue and Robert w ill come. I think Mary w ill come, too. Takeshi: How about Ken? Michiko: Ken said he had a part-time job. Takeshi: Too bad. Shall I bring something? Michiko: I think nothing is needed. Michiko: You are good (at cooking). Do you like cooking, Robert? Robert: Yes, I often cook at home. Michiko: Shall I help you with something? Robert: Well then, cut the tomatoes, please. * * Robert: Shall we s tart? Michiko: Don't drink yet. Mary said that she would come. M a n : I'm sorry for being late. . . . Cheers! Everyone: Well then 6. the day after tomorrow rain office worker camera karaoke air this morning this month job; work; occupation college student disco weather forecast place tomato summer something p arty barbecue chopsticks winter homestay; living with a local family every week next month skillful; good at . . . (w&~) clumsy; poor at . . . (-fir) famous it rains to wash to s ay .. . . * Words that appear in t he dialogue 7. (-dP) to need to be late (for . . . (-I.=) to think to cut to make to take (something) t o stare (at . . . ) t'6 U 6 R b %bfi6 to begin (- T? t o drive to do laundry to clean and Adverbs Other Expressiaas ?)?A uh-uh; no 5A-J uh-huh; yes &fT * i3hA,12P~~ Cheers! (a toast) B %(TTh) * y &ibA, ( Tph) That's too bad. + not . . . yet * 3 f5 negative * k &QT all (of the people) together 8. G r a m m a r I%5 f3h, I n this a nd the next lesson, we will learn a new paradigm of conjugation, which we wiIl 1 call "short f orms. Before w e s tart worrying about their meaning a nd h ow t hey a re used, " let u s first see w hat t hey look like. I t s hould be o bvious w hy they a re called short forms. We will list t he already f amiliar "long forms" to the right i n the t able below. ---- b s e n t tense, affirmative long forms short f orms 1 verbs: 1 L\-adjectives: , &-adjectives: + T g: noun Present tense, negative long forms short forms verbs: td-adjectives: + T q: noun T he following rules s ummarize how s hort f orms are c onstructed. - pp I i n t he affirmative (a above) Verbs and I,\-adjectives 3 same as their dictionary forms &-adjectives and noun + T q in the affirmative (b above) + I 77 with E replace I + r 1 L \- and a -adjectives and n oun i n the negative (d above) + rrpace&~dtihiwiihfdli --- 'Various names have been given to this paradigm. They include "pIain forms," "informal forms," and "direct style." Long forms, on t he other hand, are often called "polite forms," "formal f oms," and "distaI style." 9. L \ is irregular. I ts negative short form is k ~~. Verbs in the negative need to be analyzed in more detail, because 7 %-, u-, and irregular verbs conjugate differently. Negative short forms o verbs (c above) f at\. ru-verbs: Take the final 5 off and add 5 3 &t a L l I k U-verbs: Take t he final -u off and a dd -anai. + + =< *a IT%&L1 sh a I ;i * L ?' i i' + 7< 3< 5& < s %hvLLI 33 % %&&L\ m a Rig: + VJ~ G3 ejr-,aL\ * * ld wd3zL1 j + d E&S1 EaaL\ 9' Ih&?JL? L L ' + FbaLI %& & irregular verbs: + + za~i gzj LZXLI exception: + &.a Wrn With verbs in the negative, the following three points are worth noting. (1)The negative short forms of verbs that end with the hiragalza ? are -- b td:I instead J \ 2 of - -Q~:L\, f2) The vowel changes with the irregular verb < 4 . f3) The verb J B in the negative is l \ . We now t urn to discussion of how we utilize short forms. In this lesson, we will learn to use the short forms in the following four contexts: * In represented, or quoted, speech ("I t hink . . . ," "She said . . .") a I n casual conversations, as signs of intimacy In making negative requests ("Please don't . . .") (See 3 on p. 1 7 ) 5. A. 2Thissuggests that the bases of verbs like R 3 and % i actually end with the consonant w . This conso- 3 5 t, where w is nant remains dormant when the base is [illowed b y t he vowel i, thus we have d ' lacking, but it surfaces with the vowel a following, 3T A .b This mystery consonant also explains why *- the t e-formof such a verb has the small 9 , like verbs whose bases obviously end with a consonant, just such as Z 5 and 99. 10. . . ." or "I am good at doing . . ." I n expressing ideas like "I like doing (See 4 below.) Quotations T o q uote a person's utterances o r thoughts, you use a clause ending with a predicate in the short form, plus Z S 7 T L 1 L f: (They said ". . ."I, kf ,E! L I 3 T ((I think 2 t i, t hat . . ; ), a nd so forth. L is a quotation particle, which does t he job of both the English word " that" in indirect quotation and of quotation marks (" ") in direct quotation. a 0 & L 7 ? % s 6 x h 6 Z % ~ T L k', L> ~ Z -,Lli, L lix. \I Sue said that there would b e an exam tomorrow. L 3 h i d % 7 ]I - s L h W I e z ,< ~ ~-k4 \a (LIrit) ?:I? h?:L i ; i 1 think T akeshi likes Mary. Casual conversations Two people who are close friends or family members speak with short forms at t he end of sentences, using them as a sign of intimacy. T he use of long forms, in contrast, tends to imply the speaker's intention to "keep a proper distance" from the listener. Short forms, then, are like talking on a first name basis, while long forms are like using "Mr." and "Ms." I t may not be easy t o decide when it is appropriate to switch to short forms. First of alI, Japanese speakers are often very conscious of seniority. A year's difference in age m ay in m any cases totally preclude the possibility of establishing a truly "equal" relationship. 3Note that the present tense in Sue's original utterance is preserved in Mary's report. 4To say that you &'t f h i ~ komething is the case, it is more common in Japanese to say it like-bl s ( I think that something is not the case) than-- l ,Fi1,125 + ? (I don't tksak). Therefore: .A 2,E b 1Z : bt +h 3 (%L~)~~)-SAI~)F;~?LPL;~P@~~;JP~~~~,B~~ST~ ft;&'t think Mary likes ~ a k e s h ( =l think Iw"a"ry doesn't like T akahi) f 11. Second, license t o use short forms is not mutual; senior partners may feel perfectly justified in using short forms while expecting their junior partners to continue addressing them with long f oms. Thus if somebody who is older, say, your Japanese language professor, talks to you using short forms, they would be greatly surprised if you should return the favor. Here are a few observations on the grammar of short forms as they are used in casual conversations. .In the casual conversational use of short forms, question sentences do not end with but with rising intonation alone. the question particle + T h e I ending of 3-adjectives and noun CT constructions (b in the previous sec- ? tion) is usually dropped. I n casual conversations, C 2 are often replaced by the less formal and d and .j \ -i i t L . T o request that someone refrain from doing something, one can use a negative verbal short form plus t { fF 3 I.. < fZ3 z -c*F&$$&(, L l T 2 Q L, l, LPLL Z PEeme don't take pictures here. + T 12. "To be good/bad a t doing something" is - -9~~13--I-3 good a t . . . a nd -&zT+T? - (is Uii f f : 5 (is bad a t . . . ). 3 Li3++3Z!24+6 TJ&'L+TT~ -C UY Robert and describes what he did. I t is likely to be uttered when the topic of Robert has already been breached. Grammatically speaking, (I) the noun ol{- I- stands as the subject in relation to the verb 4 ( (he was the person who performed the going), and 7 (2) the noun is, per the function of the particle id, presented as the topic of the sentence (us for Robert, h e went to Okinawa). What if we both know that somebody went to Okinawa recently, a nd I know t hat i t was Robert, b ut you don't. I will say: ROBERT went t o Okinawa. 'To describe one's skills or Iack thereof, w e also often use a different set of expressions, namely, - -h2Z P (is uncornfortabIe with . . . 1. { LxTT (is comfortable with . . . 1 and --71rzl:75'.ilf * % T { * T o I am g ood a tlcmnfortable with speaking Japanese. 4, z ,A% hf:L 5 , 13. This sentence means that Robert went to Okinawa, which in English would be uttered with an extra emphasis on the name Robert. His identity is the new piece of information provided by this sentence. I t is one of the functions of the particle 15." to (1) present the subject of a sentence in a way such that (2) the noun will "fill in the blank on the information sheet. " The "blank on the information sheet" is a question word like f z h and FJ. The above Q [Z sentence will fill in the blank left out by: -$3 Q h t t fi 3 3 L f z d ao $3 t?i#%754iPR 37 2 L fz$', U6 +% Compare: X f;_i%$, I\ Who went t o Okinawa? As we learned in Lesson 2, a question word that is the subject of a sentence is never followed by the particle lat, but always by the particle h2. As we have seen, a noun that will provide the answer t o such a question is also followed b y the particle h'. Z * n Y 7 ; r h 4 S %L SL\T*T~~)>,, W hkh class is (fhe m ost) i nteresti~g? S * ~ O ? ? X & ' ; ~ ; &L & L \ ~ * * o z i: I X / L Japanese class i. s ( 2 ~ ' , 7 - 3 ~ - C + ) i F ; ' ; f i h ~ & d ~ ~3 ' . - C ~-$-hh, 2hht k \a Who wears glasses fin this class)? & T % % t ~ ~ & & ~ # a\ 3 To 2 ; t)*dfCC L L f:+&.ttt> rt 2 Professor Yamashif does. a The word for "something" is m;b-, nd the word for "anything" in negative sentences is a h: l Hz & * tlr "Some" and *anyMin: $iIhx something positive statements aE questions a~ythiw? @fix sl;: + nof . . . a nythiw @% l negative negative statements alL 14. These two words are used in places where the particles 13, 75 15. /-\ r Short Forms : i~/ A. Change the affirmatives into n egatives. @$ lh' ? L h' ( Example: B. Change the affirmatives into negatives. @ @ Informal Speech A. Answer t he following questions in informal speech, first in the affirmative, then in t he negative. @ & . < @. 2 &* Example: Q : .k 8? , r: % .. d'i A : ?A, ?A, &GQb~o *--Go/? t: f<
16. B. Answer the following questions in informal speech, first in the affirmative, then in t he negative. @ Example: Q : 3% ? ish- 3 A : 5 A , Z %,o/? A, Z F ~ J + % ' L ~ ~ 3 z If& If& 5 A. Make a guess about Mary, using - -tBLlLf. $35 Example: good a t Japanese 1. often cooks drives a car 2. listens t o a Japanese language tape every day 4. 3 . doesn't smoke 6. doesn't drink alcohol much 5 . doesn't go home late at night not married 7 . often goes t o see movies 8. 9. 1 0. likes Takeshi busy 12. not tall a good student 11. 14. not quiet 1 3. not scary not a freshman 15. B. Make a guess about the person or place below and answer the following questions. 17. Picture A B Picture C. Make a guess about t he following things, using - -&EL\%$. 8% I . the weather tomorrow 2. the next test 3 . what your classmates will do tomorrow
18. A . Report what the following people said, using - - t Zi = Z L \ t Lf;. @ L %7'~-/~flld8T&~~~T~o Example: : ,&If7 .i' f) I % 7"1--3htJBZZ-;,ril~\3 t . 6 ~ ~ Q: ~ + EX. i> A : + aCd*rt L L \ Z ~ ~ - C LI*\ ~ LL :&It-? +7i: II \ B. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. Take notes and report t o --&FTTLI% b t;. the class later, using
19. ... What would you say when you want someone % ? ?? r, 3 { f? 3 L io Example: not t o look a t your p hoto + to n ot I. not t o speak English calI you 2. to 4. n ot 3 . n ot to come t o your house go 6. not to 5 . not sleep in class smoke to s tare a t you 8. not to to 7 . n ot forget 1 0. be late not to start the class y et to 9 . n ot to erase the blackboard yet 11. not < ( 2 I%A) A. Tell w hat M ary is good/poor at, using L~P 7 d or T q T t . lT t .\ Example: tennis (good) %~'J--$~IAY=X~:~_~~+T-$, +, ci+ 7 swimming (poor) - r '1 - 3 hl;t*(aa7Sf7;+T-j-, % + 2 7 : video games (poor) 2. 1. French (good) 4. making sushi (poor) 3 . cooking (good) t aking pictures (good) 6. 5. speaking Japanese (good) eating with chopsticks (good) 8. 7 . driving a car (good) 9 . writing love letters (good) ( 77b9-) B. Pair Work-Ask if your partner likes to do the following activities. Example: studying 3. 2 . sleeping singing 1. eating 5. playing s ports studying J apanese 6. 4 . doing shopping 8. doing laundry 9. 7 . doing cleaning cooking 1 2. washing a car 11. driving a c ar 1 0. taking a b ath * If you neither like i t nor dislike it, you can use \$f 3 T& 3 h i \ T% W 1 I *A.