genki 1 an integrated course in elementary japanese1 phần 8

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Hiểu biết tiếng Nhật giúp chúng ta có thể dễ dàng tiếp cận tới các đối tác người Nhật hơn.

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  1. Michiko: Mary, I haven't seen you for a long time. How was your vacation? Mary: I t was really f n I went shopping, ate Korean dishes, and things like that in Korea. u. Michiko: Sounds good. I want to travel, too. Mary: Did you have a fun vacation, Michiko? Michiko: It was okay. I went for a drive just for one day, but I was working part-time every day. Maw: Michiko, I want to introduce you to a friend of mine. This is John. He came to Japan Iast month. John: How do you do? Michiko: How do you do? Nice to meet you. Michiko: John, where are you from? John: I am from Cairns, Australia. Michiko: Is that so. John: Have you been t o Cairns? Michiko: No, I haven't. John: It has mountains and the ocean and is a beautiful place. It's famous for the Great Barrier Reef. Where are you from, Michiko? Michiko: I am from Nagano. Please come to visit me sometime. The food is good, too. J ohn: By all means, I would love to.
  2. Australia gz? snack; sweets % &El Mew Year's % c3-3- boy toy ftQ1-T girl foreign country 9 b@ Fk F* singer camp this person (polite) this semester president o a company f class future drive beer art museum host farniIy lake mountain dream roommate to tell a lie to become hungry to own (a pet) to cut dasses to take (a class); to get (a grade) to learn toclimb bket-) to work * Words that appear in the dialogue
  3. t o get tired t o q uit Verbs Irregular ~ S L Wa to have a fight; to q uarrel * t 1 j 2 1~~1-p & to introduce herson I : p e r m & ) to go on a diet t o be late (for an appointment) t o s tudy abroad (place 1 1) Ofher Adverbs and Expressions &z a) $5 after (an event) ( eomt *% * L@9LX, ( place Ql) coming from - .fz"{ * vew and then ; iLQ just . . . ; only . . . * -?St+ . . . points - -TA * V 3 t li:3 it has been a long time okay; so-so * 3 253% more %7Y
  4. + You can use a verb stem (the verb form that goes before 3 \cl-9 o describe your t ;b f : hope or aspiration. or &BIh2EJi c\.'C"T, && -2f t f i b \ T - j f , +Eas*b2, &- . $: L~pj3-3 I*- b: C i%x Z /Y jrr I want t o see a film thzs weekend. t c B 3 k L\TTo L\-=>rS'+rn be?:< if 1 w ant t o go to C him someday. +fiL\T$ verb stem 1 want t o d o . . . As you can see in the first example above, having L \ attached t o a verb slightly affects t he composition of the sentence. A verb that takes the particle & can have either the particle 2 or 5' when it is followed by ? t l. Particles other than Q remain t he same. : . The combination of a verb and f L \ conjugates as an b\-adjective. Here are examples of : negative and past tense \ sentences. tA & cr>Atc&a i 4 ~ ( ~ 35 & &*XI, VK I don't want to see that person azy more. a + - ~ -*- v ~ ~ ~ ) t e>+- ~ ~ f L ~ z+, ~ , y ; ~ t~ci=$3 ~ , L I I went to a department store, because 1 wanfed t o buy a sweater. If your wish is one you have entertained for some time, that is, if you "have wanted to," you can use t = b \ Z , g - = , T ~ \ 2 nstead of f z'=\TT. i- i f L; b 2 L \ T ? entences are not usually used to describe wishes held by others. Somebody else's s wishes are usually reported in Japanese either as quotations, observations, or guesses. T o quote somebody, saying that she wants to do something, you can use Z Z -;,T \ 5 L f= * L with 1 L\. " : L-tz, b4 Pitfiitz~lZZ9T~h3 %7'J -3htd II L I Mary said she wamted t o go t o the b athrom.
  5. To describe your observation to the effect that somebody wants to do something, you must use a special verb f= 6% T - i:~ \ B instead of f I . If a verb takes the particle & , the ;\ \, with which we had. a choice derived verb f: P7 T C:L \ & will retain the 2,unlike between the particles 75< and & . $ 7 ' 1 --3h/~33-t-~R&f-z15'7T~~aT, rr) (It seem) M a u w axh to drink coiXe@- The verb I?= V-7-I L S , which comes f rom the dictionary f onn i3< 6 , indicates " I think that she wants to, because of the way she is behaving." W e will have more to say about this type of sentence in Lesson 14. . . .. . . . /Doyou They want t o . . . 1 want t o ? w ~ n tto +T + f=LlTT C~~TTL\~~ verb stem verb stem f=t\conjugates as an t\-adjective fchl& conjugates as an u-verb % Z only fix or = You already know that you c an connect two daum with the te-formof predicates, as in: k RTFkl%% X. % E R s T 2 & ~ 3 T o L +,4,:
  6. past tense, or incorporate i t in a bigger sentence, by working on the helping verb part. sssa. & ~ ~ t = t~l , ~ Y tS L E , ~ 3L ~ = ~ rt Lq3 2 9 < L>li :1 'd I sfudied a d talked wzth my fnmds, among other things, ooer the weekelad. G -z~tz, 9 3 T 6@h2'S3TT0 +%&M~hf7't -f 3. C;LA:( fir I like danckg, Zisteni?rg t o music, and so forth. + t Z 5'& & describes that you did something, or The past tense short form of a verb something happened, in earlier times. ?T~kLZ&~dk,33-j-~ E &L\, - Ir Have you m e r been to Europe? Yes, I haue. tS 9X / ~ Z A / E ~ + ~ Z ~ ~ ~ 1 aktt, c7 L 'nSii Takgshd has never been a bswt from classes (in his life). + Z&&t&& ... verb (past, s hort) bane the experience o f 9connects two nouns, as dues Z . 9 suggests that the things referred to are proposed as '< examples, and that you are not citing an exhaustive list.
  7. M in negative sentences) I n negative sentences, you often find the particle t$ w here you expect 752 or %. Observe the reply sentences in t he following dialogues: Q + P L f i t l ~ % r . i 7 t G R 3 T o D Oyoit watch T K Prof: Yamashitla? T '+ A : L ltlL, 7 v k + t ~ H 3 - e A o No, I don't. -A Q : ~ - t - f i ~ B & f ? ~ ~ T T 7Do~ou w ant t o have a cup o f coffee? 3 y~ < 03 A : b l b l 2 , x-t--t$E&4.7~ & 9 & *Ao No, I don't. - m 8 and f ir, respectiveIy, would not b e u ngrammatical in t he above examples. M any J apanese speakers, however, f ind t he tk versions more n atural. T he rule of t humb is that negative Japanese sentences tend to contain at least one tA p hrase. If you a dd $Lik t o t he sentences above, therefore, the htt is already fulfilled, and Japanese speakers feel much less need for 3.EZTi$SLk < & 9 3 @ L o I don't want t o speak in English. ir Z lbta' EL f c , f E 2 1 h ave never been t o Hiroshima. 9 5L o L'5 e(fb You can add E t r f to numbers to talk a bout having just t hat many items. E t f implies t hat you have something u p t o the a mount needed, b ut not more than that. 23, $2Li2*9Atz-!ElI-2tf23fzZ )5755:&'3 Si 3k bL ~r,abr,- I have met that person just once. f 2 tf suggests t hat y ou can live with t hat f ew, though t he number admittedly could have been higher. W e wiII learn another word in Lesson 14, namely, L75>, hich means "only" in the sense that you d o.not have enough of. w f Lb You can use t he particle tL to indicate t he occasion on which you do something. at dinner. @ z s t & k g Y 5 e$E42 Y I ate salad 2 IdX tz can also indicate the role you w ant something to play. &&+t?+t~&3iZS%Et>& I bought a postcard gs a sozlvsnir. tk, i IZ lss 3 . fi.
  8. 3 ) F .7 4 7 is used when you go somewhere by car for pleasure. T o' say "to have a drive" or "to g o for a drive," use F 7 4 Y t Z f5i < or F 9 4 7 r 3 -&* i a a - r w w 7 ' f i m g ~Z/I."Y,WLB L tfz0 * aT% I went fur a drive to the kake. When you simply want to say "to drive a car" (not necessarily for pleasure), use B$Gf 5 instead. 3,'..T/b HM$ T @ ~ SLTLL ? Zz k&%9 & T A h o % EA 3 Have you ever driuen a car i~ Japan? =b S , like the English word "dream,"has two meanings. One is the dream 9 w you have while sleeping; the others the dream that you wish would come true. To say "I have a dream," in Japanese, you use the verb W 8 for & sleeping dreams, and l$F 9 T L 1& o r h .5 for your visions. I had a scary dream Iest night. W J ~ Z ~ ~ . G F B Lz.Z ~ ! L! ~ W % 7 7 b r ? ~ ? @ r l r & 9 & To I have a dream- An b a f z c n ~ ~ c n l s ~ . i %7~a~s ~our ~ ~ t i y ~ future dream? t tc& L.€i4b. @Q E fabThe particle h i often follows the particle: 4 in sentences describing a place in terms of the things that are found there. Bs29-ss I Z ~ & A ~ ~ ~ ~S~ & 9- & ToV . . < B L~ ~& 53 There are lots o f big departmsnt stores & Tokyo. f,. %a,%~tsh~rf.t~t~B$=q,%*&~t~& E anA? +=A+&> i-YkL etlN- We have a good Japanese feather & my college. These sentences would be okay without i A, but there is a subtle difference between the versions with and without I&. The d sentences are about the ir places; they answer questions (either explicitly asked, or implicit) like " What is Tokyo like?" The sentences without b& after E , an the other hand, are answers to a question like "Where do you find good teachers of Japanese?'? See the grammar note discussing the difference between 21s and ki in Lesson 8. In the case of the particle E,the contrast is between the simple 4 and the combination iz 43. (See also the grammar note on counting people Z in Lesson 7.) I
  9. Practice kfzh f i L@5 j# ; Ic A. Change the following phrases into - -f;l\ sentences. ~- &< 6 2 I ,TTo ~ ~ i - ~ - ~ + (ia~k) 7h { $j9 $ + - A o )-. ( 2 ~\>~
  10. your partner wanted t o do the things above during their D. Pair Work-Ask if childhood. E. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions and report the answers as in t h e example. Example: A : i 7h$X,dAN13z&xf=~\T?y5x, tac fz B : k 0tf-*$'&
  11. F. Complete the following sentences. TT~ 6. ?= 1. + B l a r . ~ . x % f < h ~ > i :- / t. \T-j-, 2. % t f z t 2 * 5 t : $ + J , ' L +T 3 . & if/Lf-~ h a6 , $39 2 *ho 7h. t=%I: %, * t f: Uh. l>? t b b7 7". TT, , t72 a : 5 Z5-i Z? @5 3 L; ERbt='3.%Zbftr3I /ZT @AJ f-,< @ A. Tell what the following people did on the weekend using --k -fz 995. 9 Example: 9 3 y : saw temples in Kyoto, went t o a museum, etc. 1. ?z G :went camping, went for a drive, etc. fL 2. 3 a 3 Z : made sweets, read books at home, etc. 3 . X - : w ent t o Osaka to have f un, went to eat, etc. 4. HA: cleaned his room, did l aundry, etc. 5 . n If- : met friends, watched videos, etc. b 6 . P b LT ! : went t o a hot spring, rested, etc. L I:PX+?lhk L% r3F5. B. Look at the pictures a nd make your own sentences using --7"!J--fr
  12. C. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. When you answer, use - -tz!ZI--tzg$6 as in the example. if A : EI*T'fT% L t ~ ~ 1 T - j - h ~ ~ Example: i r ~ i h , 2:: B : a +Ql%SF 1 Lf ~f%~t'. 1. f (Mt. F uji) z~htt, .. r , : : mia L 1. 5 1 : 13/,, A. The following are what John has or hasn't done. Make the sentences u sing - z ty . j p j hasJ. 0 eat tempura X. b ?i 'fk
  13. -+- Pair Work-Ask y our partner the following questions. When you answer, use as in the example. rX/Qs'B*Hm??k { Example: A : 'fZ~~~dxo IiX.9~i 'J f: 1- B : - j - L ~h-x ~ i : b ?u f%, f TT-h', ?2 6. Y b Q & cfi-=l?= 2 Z $'$I +, { i i\ r " m g s g R 9 c i : ~ \ ~ar 5 . , 7. r * r: L\t $F13$(actors) @ +T, ?
  14. A . Talk about y our dream for the future or what it w as w hen you were a child. &at~mpklmT~d~~ 1. rph 9 ? L L ~ T T~ -T, L ~ & L , & Q E I : ~ ~ .L~ Example: h$;Lid#&,r ' %IS.& f &%GtzQ fL Ciii ( !: i. f ;.b Tj-, B. Class Activity-Find someone who . . . I. has seen celebrities 2. has never used chopsticks 3 . wants to live i n J apan in t he f ut~lre as a child 4 . wanted to be a star ( 29 -) ' 5 . wants t o cut classes tarnorrow 6 . doesn't want to go o ut today pictures of y our hometown a nd d escribe it. C. Class Activity-Bring Example: $'& 9 3 $o 3 3&4$3@9 { 3 f : (theater) Ql@j*% L T'Lm3d./, rpihr, Zit& [f 1 { ~ Z L - ~ ; ~ J I L $ X2 ~ " Z ~ !T, HT%k%Lk!J I -2 L : f. :ii& k E+kA b z..?J @ 7,r Lfii.% 1 : 4 + ~ i f = ~ ~ T T , ~& a~ri A d
  15. I Ilnthe J a ~ a n e s e lass C I Useful Expressions YG6 T% Both are fine. E lCTT, Same thing. 6V f : ~ ~ f = ~ q q j y - More or less the same ~~ &k A little different. Ygk'2To &l 7 3 h; $224 * A , Can't use it. 1111. ~ G & 1 T L~ 3 To 4 S~ It's wrong. - 3 3-% 513"T < ft"%\, 2 Raise your hand. 7 7: b h o "3 Read it before coming to class. ( I L T { ?53bi0 Hand in the homework. E L*
  16. x , Feeling Ill 3% l @ Mary and Michiko are @ At a hospital.
  17. Michiko: You don't look well, Mary. Mary: Urn . . . I have a little stomachache. Michiko: What's the matter? Mary: I went out to have dinner with my friend yesterday. I think maybe I ate too much. Michiko: Are you all right? Mary: Yes. Don't worry about it. Oh, it hurts. Michiko: You had better go t o a hospital. Mary: Doctor, I have a sore throat. I had a stomachache yesterday. Doctor: I see. You have a fever, too. It is just a cold. .,. Mary: WelI, I wiII have a tennis tournament soon,so I have to practice, though Doctor: You had better not exercise for a couple of days. Mary: I understand. Doctor: Take medicine and go to bed early tonight. Mary: Yes. Thank you so much. Doctor: Take care.
  18. Nouns &L leg; foot L\A meaning * SQa'h. stomach * cold 2Jaolc~ girlfliend h'kL boyfriend 3 i5& temperature (weather-not used for things) cloudy weather match; game juice politics grade (on a test, etc.) cough t hroat tooth flower sunny weather clothes hangover present homesickness thing (concrete object) snow business to take care of L\-adjectives ii53~h sweet VL\ * hurt; painful % L\ L\$=L\ there are many . . . 9L l G~L\ %?3 l d%~l narrow; not spacious L W$3 & L \ -3Z*? inconvenient; t o have a , b scheduling conflict hbl\ bad ,%L\ * Words that the dialogue appear in
  19. fantastic to catch a cold . ,. ) to be interested (in ( tupk I = ) to lose to have a fever t o become thirsty to cough to break u p; to separate (person Z ) Verbs Irregular 3X/Gkj$& 6 to get nervous ~cBCT4 * L hEA9~\T6 to worry Adverbs Ofher and Expressians always ~ 1 9 #j * ;~;&=L\L"~Z Get well soon. + l7&3$'3~\ don't look well * f z=,i=tL probably; maybe T 3 4 ??if as much as possible probably; . . . , right? * -TLa i -- r" . . . degrees (temperature) * 6-3ttCcG for two to three days because . . . * -QlT + ah7 for the first time very soon; in a few moments/days
  20. 2% Grammar is% l Z5 There are two distinct ways to mahe a shternent i n Japanese*One way is to simply report the facts as they are absmed. This is the made o f s p e h that we have learned so far. In -this lessan, we will learn a new way: the mode of apla:ab-ak things. A repor5 IS m isolated description of a fact, When y ou are late fur an appointment3you c an already report in Japanese what has haapened, s qX #% 2 +FATL fi . TEs sentence, however, does not have the right apologetic tone, because i; is not offered as an explana- tion 'for anything. lf you want to mentian the b u m fail'= to m on time as an excuse for being late., YOU will need to lrse t he e xplamfi~a ock af speech, and s ay: m (As it h i z ~ ~ e ,fj la B d&'t come~ w h l A n explanation has t wo components, one that is explicitly described in the sentence (the bus n ot corning), and another, which is implied, or explained, b y i t (you being late for the appointment). The sentence-final expression &-il-9 serves as the link between what the sentence says and what it accounts for. Compare: & L ? 72 b $: ;ti ! 3 T o : 1 haue an exam tomorrow. (a simple observation) I & L ? z T X b -h% 21AT-$, 1 haoe an exam tomorrow. (So I can't g o ouf toflight.) I want t o go to the bathroom. (decIaration of one's wish) I want to go t o the 6afhroona. (So tell me where it is.) hTT goes after the short form of a predicate. The predicate can be either in the affirmative or in the negative, either in the present tense or in t he past tense. tLTT itself 1 is invariant and does not usually appear in the negative or the past tense forms. I n writing, it is more common to find P TT instead of LT-3-. I 1 < 3 b Pt T?,(in response to t he question, "Why do you look so upset?") @@;Jr Qi>Q3 (As a matter of fact) My grade z not good. k 'In casual exchanges, k t T appears in i ts short form, tLR. In casual questions, hTC;-f;ba epIaced b y is r a.W e will examine these further in Lesson 15.



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