genki 1 an integrated course in elementary japanese1 phần 4

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Tất cả những ai học tiếng nhật đều học chữ Kanji(Chữ hán), vì thế việc có thể nhiều chữ hán thật là khó. Để nhớ được một chữ hán thì bạn phải nhớ cách viết,cách đọc theo âm hán, cách đọc theo âm nhật, rồi còn phải nhớ nghĩa nữa chứ, thật rắc rối

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  1. There's a% i n t e ~ t i o n a l tudent oaer there s T hwe & /are . . . I Ll ZT person fig We learned i n Lesson 2 that' to ask for the location of item X, you can use the word Z+Z (where) and say X td Z* Z Trtfh h. Where's McDonald's? In response, one can, of course, point and say: t { i6.F: over there. ] 7 C j - I L Y la MrDonoM9s i right i h w g near you- s -7 right hen?. L L In this lesson, we will learn t o describe locations in more detail. More specifically, we learn to describe the location of an item relative t o another item, as in "X is in front of Y." The Japanese version looks like X 12 Y @MITT.dl ( 7 7 F ~ - I L F ~ Q H * I ~ - b a %-cT0 &~ ) aa It's ifi frolzf o f that department store- Other useful words describing locations are as follows: location words - fo the right o f - as - ' to the left of Ut-2! 3 k frmi! o f 3% 5L5 behid &' T Z l - 0 h Y. inside Xis XktY03< + onlabone 5% ~ d e rbeneath l Cl k 51%~ near e m5.. next t o X I2 Y & Z D SLlETT, X is b etwgn Y u ~ 2. d
  2. za sm3@@%?a 9 T T0 rL~d-X. 3: Ai The baxk i next t o the library. s 3 E T -7 *1b TTT, @ 3 L f: The umbrella i under the table. s j Z %EaaTTD L X b 7 >t2Tt/'- , Cf~ir.X, fit,,? The restaarant i b etwez the department store? and the hospital. s One can use any of the above location words together with a verb to describe a n event that occurs in the place. To use these phrases with verbs such as &-f 6 and E one will need Fg, f : f the particle T. $ ~ia~\-/i";.9*>;1~7um-c% - 3 k e % G 2 L f z o 7 hkL 3 3 i- 1 waited for Mary i fymt o f fhe f fgag~n-Dmshce. p n The past tense f oms of verbs look like the following, where -- stands for the stem of a verb. affirmative negative -3s -2Wh present tense 1 --%tk past tense I did wo2- s tvdy Jzpanese yesterday. The various details of formation of the long forms that we Iearned in Lesson 3, like the rol-verblu-verblirregularverb distinctions, all apply to the past tense f onns as well. Another word for "near" that i also commonly used is t;ZY < . 4 s f b 1) T$ and X MY 0k L T T describe situations where two items (X and Y) are found * 3oth X X Y ~9Z side by side. For a Y Q 9 sentence to be considered appropriate, items X and Y need t o belong t o t he same category; two people, two buildings, and so forth. I n contrast, an item can be 1 E. in relation t o another item even if they are quite distinct. 0%%f;rak 4 L nkLT3, The tekphone i by the r estrom s x 'd31at.r V ~ L : Q ~ T + (,odd) 7-X. h
  3. TT" sentences look like the following. The past tense versions of "X C Y I affirmative negative --GSZE!~~@~ -73 present tense -TLk --~+&!9$t%~tk~ past tense L T*&~3*BA*a*3TLf..* + 3 L fi+b,LYt* BC( Xsx Y % < IMP: Yamtzshzta was. a s tudmf a t Tozai U ~iversify. a tj#-~E;;ta~a@EL"e&- c L 7 " r . I) a e x l i IXX. : d ' ;ti' That w as not a Japanese movie- Bxgmssion~of quantity in Japanme m e rather different h m those in English. In Jmanesb if mu want to add a quantity word like 1 i 3 to the direct object o a " : f serrtmce, rau ean either pHce it befare the noun, or after the particle 2 . F32t: { L*L& 2 L f;, 3 I took maxy pictures i~ Kyoto. $ At3S@T $$% < SAFS& z b*L 3 23 f: L +L/" -* The duration of an activity is expressed with a bare noun, like U 5 L4. Such a noun stands P. alone (that is, not followed by any particle) and usually appears immediately before the verb. % r 1 ~ - " r ~ i a + r ~ t z i L~ t Is x /tk,e r ~ ~ ~ ~ a e- ' r ~ b h-/, Mary waited for Takeski there for an hoar. after -eC C 6B (h h. For an approximate measurement, you can add . x7 & 'As was t he case with the present tense L' s & 1 3 %?A, ritten language would more likely have T ; $5 Ct w ' 3 * h t L f = , insteadofthecontractedfom L'rh ! !3+ktLTLf=. I 7 As we learned in Lesson 3, for "at about a certain time" w e have another word z'&.
  4. ? A t 2 3 ~j a+s$E*ila7 C ~ L Y & % LL ~ f:, , -;LW h f-L > X. L. d" I: IIL? -, I studied J apa~ese or about three hours yesterday- f 1 speak Japanese d English. 1 went t o Kyoto & Osaka. g The other meaning of Z is "together with"; it describes w ith whom you do something.' %7'J-3X/E32-2&Y@~l=fi,3.aT, < -4-k: I* Mary will go t o Korea w ith Sue. We learned in Lesson 2 that we use the particle % in reference to the second item which shares a common attribute with the first. You can also use $ when two or more people perform the same activity. I w m t fo K yoto yesterday. *% 3 c3 3 3% i=?fr * 3 3 t 7"z, % P mfesso~ amashifa w mt t o Kyoto Y L k +?&+i~>- PA I.+? Z yesferday, too. Or when someone buys, sees, o r eats two or more things. Mary bogghf shoes. Mary bought a bag, too- In both cases, t directly marks an item on the list of things or people that have something in common. Observe that $ replaces the particles 12, dr, or 2 in these sentences. You can also use t when you go to two places, do something on two different occasions, and so forth. 8 ~ o can use Z to connect nouns only. W e will learn about connecting verbs and sentences in Lesson 6 . u '"With" as in "with chopsticks" requires another particle. See Lesson 10.
  5. 1 went to K yoto last week. 1 w mt to Osaka, too. 5 3 h l d &f% Ei 3V 3 L fzo E = r P - - 7 4 - -t=$f? ups- k Ii Robert went to a party on Saturday. H % H I . ~ t r f - ? d --t~$733 fzo L , f t G l i if L He went fu a party on Sunday, foo. We p ut $ after the particle t = in these sentences. More generally, particles other than d2, 5 5 and ?? are used together with & , rather than being replaced b y it. .. I Expression Notes@ is often used in the sense of "across (the street) from X" or X X bx "opposite X." You may also hear another word that is used in t he sense of across, namely, X 8 Q fiht1. If something is b&ind X, or farther away from a street and cannot be directly seen because of the intervening X, in addition to calling it X O B 5 , JL you can also describe it as being X a)5 5 . /& 3 ) In t h e dialogues, we observe Mary's host father saying L 3 , 3 and her host mother saying 21 . k 3 is like the incredulous "what?" that 3 you use when you have heard something that is hard t o believe. 3 is used when you have suddenly noticed or remembered something. The small -;, at the end of these littIe words indicates that these words, when pronounced, are very short. =eB* b % (half) appears after the unit word like @E. hus, ''two hours T E 1Z L fJhElu *A @A2 and a half" is X@Bi+ rather than I + U 3 B i . C C *,%l2b9 I CtA C ; % b% b & t b L is "hello," which is used only i telephone conversa- b n tions. Some people use & t % L when they place a calI. Some other people use it when they receive a call.
  6. 1 Practice L93 nh, ( T ' A $ 2 ~9 & 'Ll' ELI i Y< A. Look at t he picture and tell what you see, using & D b t or Llbb. B. Answer t h e following questions. 1. & Q ~ = ~ ~ & z I ~ + @ L Z 3 T * ' O 1.3 2 h2& 1 [i,L 26 1: %&', A P d:tz@%i=$3$f~\3 2. rtx 4: 3 3h 3 . ; f i Q k a ~ s I z ~ l s r3 T&xo Wg: i &i: El 3 ~ / v+ 5'( C ~ F?hx,* ~ L ~ ~ X * 4. $ Q f L u l + & t ~ , 3 I: itU ttL' cR;trr;til 3 3 p-**, 7 ~ \ " i- 5. kll 6. t c3&Z (classroom) G I:&L?)'l\ 2 t ?$lo 33 L T i @E %l (zoo) I=+T$Qc\3 h a o T 7. r3 ;:-LA 01: t-R&'i&, T hh0 8. & Q k a B(country) 93 < t= kt: 25 Q f t o?gt=m75r& 3 -?a>, 3 9. r >;i Qr:
  7. C. Look at Takeshi's schedule for the week and answer the following questions. @ 5 -3 7" ' club activity - ~ f - ?4 party b FX test D. Pair Work-Write down your next week's schedule and ask each other what plans you have on each day of the week. A : ,A q j >3 Ccflh:& 9 a -j-h., E < ,- '.-- Example: -..
  8. Your Partner's Schedule Your Schedule om r ~ i g e z ~ m & L a h X/v A. Look at the picture and tell where the following things are. @ Example: E L r h.l, n egt2kT + 7t ,fi:< : * .A y i E@EI.AX- Lr tl Look at the picture a nd tell where the following things are. @ Example: + IfX. b (racket) 2 . 7 9 .r ;
  9. C. Pair Work-Ask and answer questions t o find where the buildings are. One student looks at map A. The other student looks at map B (p. 93). Don't look at the other's map. Example: A : % l t3 E L TT$h, z 3 i 5& B : * Hi ~i~~ - ~ ; T I L @9 T?, ,. fa z -%. ~ Ask where the following places are. A. Look at the information about Prof. Yamashita 25 years ago and answer t he questions. @ Twenty-five years ago, Prof. Yamashita was twenty-two years old senior at a college good student his major-Japanese history Example: Q: (college student) T L T: T %* G A** d $a, 9 9 L f:Q/v-tC~\ f:~bhr{etx
  10. B. Pair Work-Guessing game A sk questions a nd f ind out the prices your partner h a s chosen. I. Before you start, b oth of you will choose one price i n each row of the table and i mark it. i 2. I n each row, use the item a nd one of the four prices, m ake a yes-or-no-question sentence a nd find o ut which price y our partner has chosen. i 3 . You can ask at most t wo questions with one item. If you have guessed col-rectly the price your partner has chosen, you score a point. Your partner i will not give a way the right answer when you ask a wrong question. i 4. When you have asked questions about all t he items i n the table, switch roles i with your p artner and answer t heir questions, i 5. Tabulate the score. You win the game i f you have scored higher than your partner. Example: A : h ~ 7 5 1 1 % t L 1 ~ ~ 5 p J T L ? : & ' , :: ZLXL B : L lL\L, -::3 *fXlI ,U, + & r ) 3~tLTLfz, 4 A : L >t,$AH: F q T L f z & ' , - - Z -- %?TTo B: idkh. C . Pair Work-Suppose you got one thing as a birthday present and choose it from the items on the next page. Y our partner guesses what you got. Answer your partner's questions. B : 7°t-k?2 t$-hhlbh-il-Lkha, b Example: A : 22, & l l f A T L f t , L \ L \ R , hxt%X. C + & 3 2 L Lo
  11. Qaaelrmzb% t=fix b [f3&3ZF t6T A. Change the following verbs into -3 L,k and - - b I 2 h F L . k f= 4 2 ?Z fz "= & Example: + w 2ea-c+/vfz ?=".=.& + g$& 5. ( 6 6 . 3 3 7. 1. ~ 3 Q - j - 2 . 6 a - 5 8. h h ' 6 3 . ab; 4 14.hxL;5 15.Qlb; 10.1:& 1 1 . W b 12.la6 1 9-33 B. The pictures below show what M ary did last w eek. Tell what she did. @ Example: $ 7 ' ) $ / v ~ d f i Q 1 = f l g % t % S $ L 3 L f = o - ~ w r L b d.X. 3 < A315 7 (3) Thursday 12) Wednesday Ex. Monday (I) Tuesday at a coffee shop a t home in the library (6) Sunday (5) Saturday (4) Friday at a department store in Kyoto at a friend's house
  12. C. Look at t he pictures in 6 and answer t he questions. @ D. Look at t he pictures above and answer t he questions. @ Q : $ 7 ' ) 3hi3fi%ElW ~ c@J?? L 3 Lfzhx, - Example: 2: 4 If713 2 A :~ L~ t *to ~ ' I " ~ ~ I: L A h.rL * &Lbi --3ttl27k%~3tH&L 3 L f = a h , t Qit 1. $ 7 V' Ttbli L 3 L t=&*o 2 - % 7 ' )--3X/EAA%l3I =@$ U: 0: 1 d.+i 3. $ 7 1 1 - s ~ , t a ~ h 9 v t ~ g 4 . ~ t ) ~ t h > , ,3 ~ X
  13. the expressions below, ask your partners how often they did the Pair Work-Using following activities when they were a child or in high school. A : 3 j % 3~ % /- S Er 3 L { *iit a 3 L n + i $?%A Example: f ~ i ~ a ~ : I Y A. Compare sentences (a) and (b), and change sentence (bj using 5 . Example: (a) ~ \ ~ / T - # - t ; f : = T 5 R T ~ , h k+
  14. @ B. Describe the pictures using 6. Example: & *%X/liF%T7fo d <
  15. &@Cl@g (Review Exercises) @) hrLw5 h A. Answer the following questions. and B want to play basketball together. The following is A 's B. Pair Work-A schedule for this week. ( 6's schedule is on p. 93.) Play the roles of A and B with your partner. Ask each other what the other is doing and decide on what day you will play basketball. A 's S chedule Example:
  16. Pair Work @ C. Map 8 Ask where the following places are. @ B. Pair work B 's S chedule Example:
  17. Days Months (-Ira) L %75;3 ( -8) b\ch29 J anuary July Id G &:- ( ~f i ) C~h'7 ( = A ) February August k (ha) 3hhi'7 ( ~ f i ) March September ( 7f S9 C q~ j h p 9 L h Z 7 (mj) April (f-fi)dctober 1 j L $ $ 2 9 (+-- )-November May , (&A> :fit9 @ < U@i 6 7 ~(-+si )-December f 6 h 2 9 ( *I> J une ~53 Time Words W eek Month Year Day $a?X Ct754f9 3 +th@&b? 2 i2X Z L ~ a) 8) ( %Q (=-baEI the day before yesterday the week before last the month before last the year before last (%a)- tfhIf-;,(%fl) 314%L(isF) 3 ~ 1 3 wa) ( Ie~~rpj last month last week last year yesterday .3 ( +a) ~ / , ~ (n S ) r &tr7(+fl) +i t Z L (WF) '1 I I I I this year this week today this month (%a)~ - , L \ I - ~ T ( iffa) ~L'~X.(~PSF) 9 ~,\.\~rp next vear next week next month tomorrow 31;~\t~p5 3 h 37-C 5 L; ~ h j f a h ~df-3 (.$%a) (%*a) (&*+) t he day after tomorrow the week after next the month after next t he year after next
  18. 'cp$%fiR?JA Trip to Okinawa / @ Robert and Ken are vacationing in Okinawa. @ At t he post office.
  19. @ On M onday at school. Robert: Nice weather. Ken: Yes. But it is a Little hot. Robert: Wow, beautiful sea! Ken: Let's swim. * * * Ken: What kind of sports da you like, Robert? Robert: I Iike surfing. Shall we do it together tomorrow? Ken: But isn't it difficult? Robert: No. Robert: Excuse me. How much is a postcard to Britain? Person at the post office: 70 yen. Robert: Then, two 70-yen stamps, pIease. And one SO-yen stamp, please. Takeshi: Robert, thank you for the postcard. Did you enjoy.the trip? Robert: Yes. The sea was very beautiful in Okinawa. Takeski: Good. I like the sea very much, too. Was the airline ticket expensive? Robert: No, it wasn't so expensive. How was your date, Takeshi? Takeshi: . . .



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