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Lãnh đạo chuyển đổi và quá trình tham gia sáng tạo trong doanh nghiệp viễn thông Việt Nam: Vai trò trung gian của trao quyền tâm lý

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Nghiên cứu này tập trung vào việc hiểu mối quan hệ của lãnh đạo chuyển đổi, quá trình tham gia sáng tạo và trao quyền tâm lý. Kết hợp cả phương pháp định tính và định lượng với quy mô mẫu là 420 nhân viên doanh nghiệp viễn thông, kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy lãnh đạo chuyển đổi có mối quan hệ tích cực với quá trình tham gia sáng tạo và trao quyền tâm lý, trao quyền tâm lý có tác động tích cực đến quá trình tham gia sáng tạo. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo!

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Nội dung Text: Lãnh đạo chuyển đổi và quá trình tham gia sáng tạo trong doanh nghiệp viễn thông Việt Nam: Vai trò trung gian của trao quyền tâm lý

  1. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN ECONOMICS & BUSINESS 2020 ICYREB 2020 TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND CREATIVE PROCESS ENGAGEMENT IN VIETNAM TELECOMMUNICATION ENTERPRISES: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT LÃNH ĐẠO CHUYỂN ĐỔI VÀ QUÁ TRÌNH THAM GIA SÁNG TẠO TRONG DOANH NGHIỆP VIỄN THÔNG VIỆT NAM: VAI TRÒ TRUNG GIAN CỦA TRAO QUYỀN TÂM LÝ Dr. Nguyen Thi Phuong Linh National Economics University linhnp@neu.edu.vn Abstract Leadership influences the employee’s participation in creative activities, especially those in the telecommunications industry, in the face of continuous technological innovation. This study focuses on understanding the relationship of transformational leadership, creative process en- gagement and psychological empowerment. Combining both qualitative and quantitative methods with a sample size of 420 telecommunication enterprises employees, the research results show that transformational leadership has a positive relationship with creative process engagement and psychological empowerment, psychological empowerment has a positive effect on creative process engagement, at the same time, psychological empowerment plays a mediating role in the relationship between transformational leadership and creative process engagement. Based on research results, the author makes implications for managers in Vietnam telecommunication en- terprises including: developing transformational leadership by empowering and encouraging employees’ participation in decision-making and develop new ideas, developing ways to empow- ers employees emotionally. Keywords: creative process engagement, psychological empowerment, telecommunication enterprises, transformational leadership, Vietnam. Tóm tắt Khả năng lãnh đạo ảnh hưởng đến sự tham gia của nhân viên vào các hoạt động sáng tạo, đặc biệt là những hoạt động trong ngành viễn thông, trước sự đổi mới công nghệ liên tục. Nghiên cứu này tập trung vào việc hiểu mối quan hệ của lãnh đạo chuyển đổi, quá trình tham gia sáng tạo và trao quyền tâm lý. Kết hợp cả phương pháp định tính và định lượng với quy mô mẫu là 420 nhân viên doanh nghiệp viễn thông, kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy lãnh đạo chuyển đổi có mối quan hệ tích cực với quá trình tham gia sáng tạo và trao quyền tâm lý, trao quyền tâm lý có tác động tích cực đến quá trình tham gia sáng tạo, đồng thời, trao quyền tâm lý đóng một vai trò trung gian trong mối quan hệ giữa lãnh đạo chuyển đổi và quá trình tham gia sáng tạo. Dựa trên kết quả nghiên cứu, tác giả đưa ra các đề xuất cho nhà quản lý tại các doanh nghiệp viễn 1425
  2. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN ECONOMICS & BUSINESS 2020 ICYREB 2020 thông Việt Nam bao gồm: phát triển năng lực lãnh đạo chuyển đổi bằng cách trao quyền và khuyến khích sự tham gia của nhân viên vào việc ra quyết định và phát triển các ý tưởng mới, phát triển các cách thức để trao quyền cho nhân viên về mặt cảm xúc. Từ khóa: quá trình tham gia sáng tạo, trao quyền tâm lý, doanh nghiệp viễn thông, lãnh đạo chuyển đổi, Việt Nam 1. Introduction The telecommunications sector in Vietnam is seen as a key element in the ‘Doi Moi’ eco- nomic reform that began in 1986 and the economy has achieved a remarkable achievement of results through structural reform initiatives to get rid of state monopolies (Lee et al., 2011). Cur- rently, in the context of industrial revolution 4.0 with new technological innovations popping up everywhere, telecommunication enterprises are constantly facing challenges to maintain their ad- vantages (Andersen and Tushman, 2004) and competition between telecommunication enterprises must be creative to meet customer requirements (Nham et al., 2020). Leaders influence various aspects of employee behavior, this assertion has been demon- strated in a number of studies such as transformational leaders influence employees’ creative be- havior and performance (Golden and Shriner, 2017; Hughes et al., 2018; To et al., 2015), transformational leaders influence employees’ innovative work behavior (Afsar et al., 2014). In the field of creativity research, most studies focus on the leader’s influence on employee’s creative outcomes rather than on participation in the creative process (Henker et al., 2015; Hughes et al., 2018; Zhang and Bartol, 2010). In addition, in the study of creative process engagement, the rea- sons for the relative high or low engagement of an employee in the organization’s creative effort process are not fully explored (Carmeli et al., 2013; Hughes et al., 2018; Mahmood et al., 2019; Rodriguez-Sanchez et al., 2017). In leadership styles, transformatonal leadership allows employees to see beyond one’s ben- efits to group and organizational overall improvement (Bass, 1998; Bass et al., 2003). Transfor- mational leadership increases employee efficiency (as a follower), facilitates them to organize and complete tasks to implement organizational strategies over time (Shamir et al., 1993; Fitzger- ald and Schutte, 2010). Transformational leadership often emphasizes collaboration, fulfilling collective assignments, learning by sharing experience, control, freedom in decision-making and delegate the authority to implement ideas that motivate employees to participate in the concep- tualization and execution process (Daft, 2001). Transformational leaders empower and encourage participation in decision-making that makes employees feel empowered to perform missions with a level of collective identity and cohesion (Jung and Sosik, 2002). Psychological empowerment is a resting mental state within the individual that reflects a positive orientation toward a particular job role (Thomas and Velthouse, 1990). When employees believe that they are capable and provided with the necessary facilities to perform their jobs ef- fectively, they have a certain range of self-determination on job settings, and can more easily focus on more thoughtful and persistent solution-oriented idea formation and results (Deci and Ryan, 1991; Spreitzer, 1995; Zhang and Bartol, 2010). When employees are empowered in or- 1426
  3. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN ECONOMICS & BUSINESS 2020 ICYREB 2020 ganizations, they exhibit creative behavior because they perceive value in their job role (Jung et al., 2003). The study aims to contribute in the following ways. Firstly, although the documentation of creative results is substantial, research on creative process engagement still does not seem enough (Carmeli and Schaubroeck, 2007; Mahmood et al., 2019; Zhang and Bartol, 2010). The research will enhance existing knowledge of creativity by adding new evidence to understand employees’ engagement in the creative process. Secondly, among the various leadership styles, research on the effectiveness of transformational leadership in an Asian context remains very limited and in- conclusive (Ma and Jiang, 2018; Newman et al., 2017). The findings of this study will add to the new empirical evidence for the effectiveness of transformational leadership. Thirdly, research on employee creativity and innovation in development and emerging economies is very limited, this study will supplement empirical evidence on employee’s creative behavior in developing coun- tries. Finally, the author learns the mediating role of psychological empowerment in the relation- ship between transformational leadership and creative process engagement in Vietnam telecommunication enterprises. 2. Literature review and hypothesis development Transformational leadership and creative process engagement Previous research has found that transformational leadership more effectively than other leadership styles in influencing employee behavior (Banks et al., 2016; Braun et al., 2013; Deinert et al., 2015; Eberly et al., 2017; Hughes et al., 2018; Stenmark et al., 2011). Transformational leadership is a branch of behavioral theory and was developed by Burns (1978) and further refined by Bass (1985). Transformational leadership is described as the process in which leader role mod- els, stimulate and encourage creativity, provide inspiration, and engage in supporting and men- toring people to achieve the overall vision and goals of the organization (Bass, 1990; Bass and Avolio, 1994; Bednall et al., 2018; Suifan et al., 2018). Transformational leadership can be de- fined as a set of behaviors that include (a) idealized influence, (b) inspirational motivation, (c) intellectual stimulation and (d) individualized consideration can transform people according to their aspirations, identities, needs, interests and values to move them to a higher level (Bass and Avolio, 1994). The concept of creative process engagement in this research refers to behavior, cognitive and emotional states in which a person tries to identify a problem, find and encode information and generate ideas (Amabile, 1996; Drazin et al., 1999). Creative process engagement is defined as the employee’s participation in creative-related methods or processes, including: problem iden- tification, information searching and encoding, ideas generation (Amabile, 1983; ReiterPalmon and Illies, 2004). To improve creativity in the organizational context, employees need to identify and structure the correct problem and seek information to find a solution to the problem (Mum- ford, 2000; Reiter-Palmon et al., 2004). The employee’s time and effort in problem identification positively affects the uniqueness and quality of the solutions and, thereafter, innovative results (Reiter-Palmon et al., 1997). After problem identification, employees need to search and encode information related to the problem and solution. Searching and coding requires significant em- ployee’s time, energy and patience to accumulate information from both internal and external 1427
  4. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN ECONOMICS & BUSINESS 2020 ICYREB 2020 sources (Illies and Reiter-Palmon, 2004; Zhang and Bartol, 2010). Finally, based on information analysis, employees need to generate new ideas to bring innovation to the organization (Mumford, 2000; Zhang and Bartol, 2010). Transformational leaders, through visionary initiatives, functional expertise, personal coun- seling, cultural support and intellectual stimulation, can influence employees participating in cre- ative activities (Woodman et al., 1993). Such leaders often encourage employees to engage in creative and innovative behavior by providing a supportive environment (Bednall et al., 2018; Howell and Avolio, 1993; Scott and Bruce, 1994). Therefore, based on the theoretical premises and literature review above, the study proposes the following hypothesis: H1. Transformational leadership is positively related to employees’ creative process en- gagement Transformational leadership and psychological empowerment In recent years, the concept of empowerment has been seen as a powerful weapon for im- proving organizational effectiveness (Pradhan et al., 2017). Spreitzer (1995) defines psychological empowerment as a kind of intrinsic motivation expressed from four kinds of perception: meaning, competence, self-determination and impact. Spreitzer (1995) argues that these four dimensions are necessary to form the overall structure of empowerment, and without one of the four dimen- sions will reduce the overall scope of perceived empowerment. Bass et al. (1987) affirms a positive relationship of transformation leadership and psycho- logical empowerment. Transformational leadership builds a work environment in which employ- ees feel motivated, competent, and self-managed to experience internal empowerment (O¨zaralli, 2003). Transformational leaders quite often change the organizational processes and systems to achieve an exciting future, delegate employees to move forward and take on accountability, look- ing for them at a higher level of commitment by providing flexibility to make decisions about work context (Afsar et al., 2014). In view of the preceding discussion, the following hypothesis is proposed: H2. Transformational leadership is positively related to employees’ psychological empow- erment. Psychological empowerment and creative process engagement Employees are mentally empowered to express creative behavior by aligning personal goals with organizational goals (Jha, 2014). When employees feel that they have control with personal decision making, the ability to influence others, freedom, flexibility, sense of work, they tend to create more creative attempts to improve work efficiency (Kendall et al., 1999). Meanwhile, cre- ative process engagement plays an equal role, if not more important role in promoting employee creativity (Amabile, 1996; Amabile et al., 1996). In view of the above discussion, the following hypothesis is proposed: H3. Psychological empowerment is positively related to employees’ creative process en- gagement Psychological empowerment as a mediator 1428
  5. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN ECONOMICS & BUSINESS 2020 ICYREB 2020 Bass (1999) emphasizes psychological empowerment as a possible transformational lead- ership enhancer and find that transformational leadership acts through empowerment to influence individual work results. Psychological empowerment explains the relationships between trans- formational leadership and employee’s work-related behaviors by providing holistic motivational mechanisms (Walsh et al., 2014; Joo and Lim, 2013; Krishnan, 2012; Dust et al., 2014). Tierney and Farmer (2004) show that employees exhibit creativity and innovation when they work in highly autonomous work environments with frequent consultation, self-direction, control, and interloper. As a result, when leaders provide employees with greater autonomy and decision- making control, employees are more likely to respond with higher creative process engagement (Volmer et al., 2012; Zhang and Bartol, 2010). Based on the above arguments, I hypothesize that: H4. Psychological empowerment mediates the relationship between transformational lead- ership and creative process engagement. 3. Methods Sample and procedure Sample Samples for the survey are done through a simple random sampling method. The study participants consisted of 420 employees who were randomly selected from a telecommunication enterprise in the North, Central and South of Vietnam. The author conducted to issue and collect questionnaires directly for each employee in these telecommunications businesses. Sample sta- tistics showed that 188 male and 232 female employees participated in the survey, respectively 44.8% and 55.2% of the total. Out of 420 questionnaires, 64.5% of employees are between 20 and 30 years old; 30.2% of employees are between 31 and 40 years old; the number of other age groups is not significant. 79.8% of the sample has college/university degrees; 55.6% have 1 to 5 years’ work experience, 17.9% have 6 to 10 years’ work experience. Procedure A set of standardized questions about transformational leadership, creative process engage- ment and psychological empowerment were used through a questionnaire survey to collect data from employees in the telecommunication enterprises in Vietnam. The author has approached the head of human resources of the respective organization and has the required formal permission to carry out the survey. The objectives of the study were briefly explained to the respondents, which enabled them to answer the survey accurately. Figure 1. The conceptual model 1429
  6. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN ECONOMICS & BUSINESS 2020 ICYREB 2020 Measures Transformational leadership (TL). The 20-item scale was designed by Avolio et al. (1999) to examine four dimensions (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration) (α’s = 0.812, 0.862, 0.833 and 0.873, respectively). A sample item is, “I feel proud to be associated with my team leader.” Each item was rated from 1 (strongly dis- agree) to 5 (strongly agree). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for the scale, and the result demonstrated an acceptable model fit (χ2(131) = 169.421, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.989, GFI = 0.958, RMSEA = 0.026), suggesting that the dimensions reflected the overall construct. Psychological empowerment (PE). Psychological empowerment was assessed by using the 12-item psychological empowerment scale developed by Spreitzer (1995). These 12-item scale as manifested in four dimensions: meaning, competence, self-determination and impact (α’s = 0.829, 0.798, 0.762 and 0.808, respectively). A sample item is, “The work I do is very important to me.” Each item was rated from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for the scale, and the result demonstrated an acceptable model fit (χ2(50) = 67.303, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.990, GFI = 0.987, RMSEA = 0.029), indicating that the dimensions are distinct and the notion is valid. Creative process engagement (CPE). Creative process engagement was measured with Zhang và Bartol (2010). This measure contains three dimensions: problem identification, infor- mation searching and encoding and idea generation (α’s = 0.793, 0.770 and 0.866 respectively). A sample item is, “I spend considerable time trying to understand the nature of the problem.” Each item was rated from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). A confirmatory factor analy- sis (CFA) was conducted for the scale, and the result demonstrated an acceptable model fit (χ2(41) = 45.712, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.997, GFI = 0.980, RMSEA = 0.017), showing that the scale is per- fectly suitable for further analysis. 4. Analysis and results Validity analyses (common method bias) I conducted a confirmation factor analysis (CFA) to confirm the variability of the variables in this study. The model is consistent with the data (χ2 (724) = 814.461, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.987, GFI = 0.917, RMSEA = 0.017) (Hinkin, 1998; Steiger, 1990). These CFA results confirmed sat- isfactory discriminatory value and showed no bias of the common method bias. Descriptive statistics and correlation Table 1 shows means, standard deviations and correlations among the related variables. Transformational leadership was significantly correlated with creative process engagement (r = 0.132, p < 0.01) and psychological empowerment (r = 0.447, p < 0.01). Psychological empow- erment was significantly correlated with creative process engagement (r = 0.296, p < 0.01). 1430
  7. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN ECONOMICS & BUSINESS 2020 ICYREB 2020 Table 1. Means, standard deviations and correlations among the related variables Mean Std. Deviation TL PE CPE TL 3.3196 0.51995 1 PE 3.5036 0.69380 0.447** 1 CPE 3.2405 0.73354 0.132** 0.296** 1 Notes: n = 420; **p < 0.01 Hypothesis testing The author conducted regression analysis, the results of regression analysis in association with PROCESS v3.5 by Andrew F. Hayes shown in Table 2. Results show a significant relation- ship between transformational leadership and creative process engagement (β = 0.132, t = 2.727, p = 0.007) and so H1 (transformational leadership is positively related to creative process en- gagement) was not rejected. Results also show a significant relationship between transformational leadership and psychological empowerment (β = 0.447, t = 10.227, p = 0.000) and so H2 (trans- formational leadership is positively related to psychological empowerment) was not rejected. Re- sults show a significant relationship between psychological empowerment and creative process engagement (β = 0.296, t = 6.341, p = 0.000) and so H3 accepted (psychological empowerment is positively related to creative process engagement). Finally, results indicated that psychological empowerment mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and creative process engagement as bootstrapped 95% confidence interval and effect = 0.0940. Therefore, H4 (psy- chological empowerment mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and cre- ative process engagement) was also not rejected. Table 2. The mediating effect of psychological empowerment β SE t p Transformational leadership g Creative process 0.132 0.068 2.727 0.007 engagement Transformational leadership g Psychological 0.447 0.058 10.227 0.000 empowerment Psychological empowerment g Creative 0.296 0.049 6.341 0.000 process engagement Bootstrap results for indirect effect LL 95% CI UL 95% CI 0.592 0.1297 Notes: iUn-standardized regression coefficients reported. Bootstrap sample size 1000. iLL = lower limit; CI = confidence interval; UL = upper limit. 1431
  8. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN ECONOMICS & BUSINESS 2020 ICYREB 2020 5. Discussion and implications Discussion The purpose of this study is to confirm the influence of transformational leadership on cre- ative process engagement and examine the mediating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between transformational leadership and creative process engagement. The results show that a relationship between transformational leadership and creative process engagement, transformational leadership and psychological empowerment, psychological empowerment and creative process engagement, and psychological empowerment are found to mediate the relation- ship between transformational leadership and creative process engagement among employees in Vietnamese telecommunication enterprises. These results are consistent with previous studies showing that perceptions of transforma- tional leadership can significantly influence and encourage employee’s creative process engage- ment (Azim et al., 2019; Bin Saeed et al., 2019; Mahmood et al., 2019). According to Burns (1978), transformational leaders create a supportive workplace through inspiration, motivation, and personal consideration. Such a supportive environment increases job satisfaction, effectively increasing employee’s motivation to engage in complex work and creative initiatives (Satta- yaraksa and Boon-itt, 2018; Ma and Jiang, 2018). The results that transformational leadership predicts psychological empowerment are also consistent with previous studies (Dust et al., 2014; Pradhan et al., 2017). By giving employees personal consideration and helping them move towards the realization and development of their goals, transformational leaders can empower them mentally (Afsar et al., 2014). Employees work- ing for transformational leaders seem to have made the necessary efforts to become high per- formers in their jobs and to be well-organized employees because transformational leaders is based on the psychological empowerment of their employees (Dust et al., 2014). This study also shows that psychological empowerment significantly predicts the em- ployee’s creative process engagement. This observation has been acknowledged in the study of Aslam (2017), Bin Saeed et al. (2019), Zhang and Bartol (2010). When an employee believes they are capable of performing a successful task, there is a certain degree of self-determination in the job performance and is able to shape the desired outcome through his or her behavior, em- ployees are more likely to focus on an idea or problem for longer and more persistent (Deci and Ryan, 1991; Spreitzer, 1995). Theoretically, this study confirms the mediating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between transformational leadership and creative process engagement. It provides a helpful insight into understanding the underlying mechanisms which transformational leadership influences creative process engagement. This study complements previous studies when they have examined the effects of transformational leadership on creative process engagement through the mediating role of an intrinsic motivation (Mahmood et al., 2019); creative self-efficacy (Azim et al., 2019) but never mentioned the mediating role of psychological empowerment. Implications Based on the research results, the author gives a few implications for Vietnamese telecom- munication enterprises managers: 1432
  9. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN ECONOMICS & BUSINESS 2020 ICYREB 2020 Firstly, by demonstrating that transformational leadership affects employees ‘creative process engagement, managers should develop transformational leadership by empowering and encouraging employees’ participation in decision-making and develop new ideas that can be put into practice. Secondly, the study shows that psychological empowerment acts as a mediator between transformational leadership and creative process engagement, so managers should pay more at- tention in developing ways to empowers employees emotionally. Managers should motivate em- ployees to understand the nature and value of their work instead of focusing on external rewards, giving employees considerable autonomy in doing their jobs and helping them understand the importance and impact of their work on others. REFERENCES 1. Afsar, B., Badir, Y. F., & Saeed, B. B. (2014), “Transformational leadership and innova- tive work behavior”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, 114(8), 1270-1300. 2. Amabile, T. M. (1996), Creativity and innovation in organization, Boston: Harvard Busi- ness School. 3. Amabile, T. M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., and Herron, M. (1996), “Assessing the work environment for creativity”, Academy of management journal, 39(5), 1154-1184. 4. Anderson, P., & Tushman, M. L. (Eds.). (2004), Managing strategic innovation and change: A collection of readings, Oxford University Press. 5. Aslam, S. (2017), “Psychological empowerment on creativity among employees of IT sector: The mediating role of creative process engagement and intrinsic motivation”, Canadian Social Science, 13(6), 11-34. 6. Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1999), “Re examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership”, Journal of oc- cupational and organizational psychology, 72(4), 441-462. 7. Azim, M. T., Fan, L., Uddin, M. A., Jilani, M. M. A. K., & Begum, S. (2019), “Linking transformational leadership with employees’ engagement in the creative process”, Management Research Review, 42(7), 837-858 8. Banks, G. C., McCauley, K. D., Gardner, W. L., & Guler, C. E. (2016), “A meta-analytic review of authentic and transformational leadership: A test for redundancy”, The leadership quar- terly, 27(4), 634-652. 9. Bass, B. M. (1985), Leadership and performance beyond expectations, New York: Free Press. 10. Bass, B. M. (1998), Transformational leadership: industrial, Military and Educational Impact, Mahwah. 11. Bass, B. M. (1990), “From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision”, Organizational dynamics, 18(3), 19-31. 1433
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