Bài giảng vật lý bậc đại học

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  • Bài giảng Vật lý đại cương 2 - Chương 1: Thuyết động học phân tử chất khí trình bày phương trình cơ bản và các hệ quả, nội năng khí lý tưởng, định luật phân bố đều năng lượng theo bậc tự do, công thức khí áp, phân bố Boltzman, quãng đường tự do trung bình của phân tử, các hiện tượng vận chuyển.

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  • Bài giảng “Vật liệu điện” được biên soạn dùng làm tài liệu học tập cho sinh viên bậc TCCN chính qui ngành Điện công nghiệp và dân dụng, trường đại học Phạm Văn Đồng. Bài giảng sẽ trình bày các lý thuyết cơ bản trong môn vật liệu điện, gồm 3 phần cơ bản: vật liệu dẫn điện, vật liệu bán dẫn và vật liệu cách điện.

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  • Cơ lý thuyết là môn khoa học cơ sở nghiên cứu chuyển động cơ học của vật rắn và các quy luật tổng quát của chuyển động đó. Bài giảng Cơ lý thuyết 1 được biên soạn nhằm đáp ứng nhu cầu giảng dạy, học tập và nghiên cứu cho sinh viên bậc đại học ngành cơ khí tại Trường Đại học Phạm Văn Đồng.

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  • Học thuyết về ánh sáng là một trong những học thuyết quan trọng của vật lý hiện đại. Học thuyết này dựa trên quan niệm về lưỡng tính sóng - hạt của ánh sáng. Quang học trong chương trình bậc trung học phổ thông hiện nay thường được chia thành hai phần: quang hình học và quang lý.

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  • Many physical phenomena of great practical interest to engineers chemists, biologists, physicists, etc. were not in Gen. Phys. I & II Quantum Physics: The development of experimental equiment and techniques  modern physics can go inside the microscopic world (atoms, electrons, nucleus, etc.)  New principles, new laws for the microscopic (subatomic) world were discoverved

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  •  We knew that the concepts of mechanical work and energy play an important role in studying mechanical phenomena.  Concerning to thermal phenomena, there exits a new form of energy called “heat”: Heat can be transferred from one to other systems For a system with volume held constant, the effect of heat is to change the temparature of a system.

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  • The first law of thermodynamics gives the quantiative relations between the internal energy of a system and the quantities of heat and work that the system exchange with surroundings. It express the conservation of energy. The first law of thermodynamics is true, but not enough ! Why ? Many thermodynamic processes which don’t violate the 1st law, but don’t happen in nature !

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  • 1.1 Induction experiment: Inside the shaded region, there is a magnetic field into the board. – If the loop is stationary, the Lorentz force (on the electrons in the wire) predicts: (a) A Clockwise Current; (b) A Counterclockwise Current; (c) No Current Now the loop is pulled to the right at a velocity v. – The Lorentz force will now give rise to:

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  • 1.1 The balance of charges on conductors: In conductors there are charged particles which can be freely move under any small force. Therefore the balance of charges on conductors can be observed under these circumstances:  The electric field equals zero everywhere inside the conductor E = 0 The electric potential is constant inside the conductor V = const  The electric field vector on the surface of conductors direct along the normal of the surface at each point E = En The surface of conductors is equipotential Inside conductors there is no charge.

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  • We have known the close connection between changing eletric fields and magnetic fields. They can create each other and form a system of electromagnetic fields.  Electromagnetic fields can propagate in the space (vacuum or material environment). We call them electromagnetic waves. They play a very important role in science and technology.

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  • To have a quantum-mechanical treatment we model a crystalline solid as matter in which the atoms have long-range order, that is a recurring (periodical) pattern of atomic positions that extends over many atoms. We will describe the wavefunctions and energy levels of electrons in such periodical atomic structures.  We want to answer the question: Why do some solids conduct curr We want to answer the question: Why do some solids conduct current ent and others don and others don’ ’t? t?...

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  • It has been known from the previous chapter that light, and in general, electromagnetic waves have particle behavior. Some latter time than the quantum theory of light, it was discovered that particles show also wavelike behavior. The wave-particle duality of matter is the fundamental concept of modern physics Newton’s classical physics should be replaced by the new mechanics which is able to describe the wave nature of particles

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  • “Diffraction” of light can be understood as any deviation of light rays from their geometrical propagation line (that is straight in a homogeneuos material) An example (shown in the picture):The edge of shadow is never perfectly sharp. Some light appears in the geometrical shadow, and there are dark and light fringers in the area of illumination.

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  • Investigation of the magnetic properties of materials is very important, because magnetic phenomena have various scientific and technical applications. The macroscopic properties of matter are a manifestation of the microscopic properties of the atoms of which it is composed. The magnetic properties of materials may be very different for types of material, depending on their nature and structure.

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  • At the end of the 19-th century, physics was at its most confidence situation. Classical phyics, as formulated in Newton’s law of mechanics and Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism, have proved very successful in solving every problem. →At that time there seemed to be no question for which physics could not provide an answer !!! But then it came as a great shock when some simple phenomena were observed which could not be explained by classical physics →a new theory, quantum theory, was developed at the beginning of the 20-th century...

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  •  Some history:  Magnetic effects from natural magnets have been known for a long time. Recorded observations from the Greeks more than 2500 years ago.  The word magnetism comes from the Greek word for a certain type of stone (lodestone) containing iron oxide found in Magnesia, a district in northern Greece.  Properties of lodestones: could exert forces on similar stones and could impart this property (magnetize) to a piece of iron it touched.

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  • Interference and diffraction of light are arguments for wave charactiristics of light. We know that there are two types of wave processes: transverse & longitutional waves →to what are light waves belong ? Study of polarization of light makes clear that This conclusion is in according to the concept that light waves are electromagnetic waves with a definte band of frequencies. Recall that electromagnetic waves are transervse waves in which e-vectors & m-vectors oscillate in such follwing directions...

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  • • Imagine an atom with excess energy. Without external action, the atom would, after a period of time, spontaneously emit light, whose properties (e.g. its direction) are random — only the energy is fixed. • This situation changes when the atom is shone with a light wave of the corresponding energy. There is then a higher probability that the atom will also simply copy the remaining properties of the incident wave: It then emits light that is in step with the original and propagates in the same direction....

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  • We have known how can describe the electric field in vacuum. How is the electric field in a matter environment? In this chapter we consider the case that the environment is a nonconducting material Recall that in a conducting body (conductor) the charges move freely in respond to an electric field, but in nonconducting bodies the charges can not move freely. Nonconducting bodies are called dielectrics or insulators.

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  • From this Chapter we will study thermal properties of matter, that is what means the terms “hot” or “cold”, what is the difference between “heat” and “temparature”, and the laws relative to these concepts. We will know that the thermal phenomena are determined by internal motions of molecules inside a matter. There exists a form of energy which is called thermal energy, or “heat”, which is the total energy of all molecular motions, or internal energy.

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